1 )A factually inaccurate or dubious strong belief can ne’er be legitimate…”

InR V Paris, Abdullah & A ; Miller[ 1 ] , the plaintiff in errors appealed against their strong belief of slaying. The Crown relied upon admittances made by one of the Defendants and admittances made to two adult females that had visited him in prison. The Court of Appeal listened to a figure of tapes of drawn-out interviews and was horrified by the intimidation and hectoring to which he had been subjected. It was concluded that short of physical force, it was hard to conceive of ore intimidating behavior. Section 76 ( 2 ) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 [ “PACE” ] provides:

“If in any proceedings where the prosecution propose to give in grounds a confession [ it is represented that the confession was obtained ] … ( a ) by subjugation of the individual who made it ; or ( B ) in effect of anything said or done which was likely, in the fortunes bing at the clip, to render undependable any confession…the tribunal shall non let the confession to be given in grounds against him…” .

The Court concluded that there was no uncertainty of subjugation in the above footings. A Case Remark in the Criminal Law Review [ 2 ] concludes:

“The fortunes of the instance did non bespeak defects in the proviso of [ PACE ] ; they indicated a combination of human mistakes. The constabulary had adopted techniques of question which were entirely contrary to the spirit and in many instances the missive of the codifications laid down under the Act” .

This determination and the above reading thereof supports the decision of Professor Dennis. However condemnable the offense and nevertheless great the motive for conveying the guilty parties to justness, there must be restraint upon the methods employed to pull out confessions. This decision may be regarded as holding a moral base in add-on to the statutory commissariats of PACE. In order for there to be assurance in a system of condemnable justness, there must be assurance on the grounds upon which a strong belief is based. The holiness of this rule is such that even if continuing it consequences on juncture in the guilty traveling free, the overruling rule of equity must be upheld.

R V Sang[ 3 ] represents a reverse to this doctrine. Two suspects were indicted on counts of confederacy to express forged bills and ownership of the notes. It was argued that the grounds against them had been obtained through the activities of anagent provocateur. The justice at first case ruled that he had no discretion to except such grounds. Amazingly, the Court of Appeal agreed and was farther upheld by the House of Lords which ruled that the justice had no discretion to decline to acknowledge relevant admissible grounds on the land that it was obtained by improper or unjust agencies. It was acknowledged that a test justice in a condemnable test ever has discretion to decline to acknowledge grounds on the footing that its damaging consequence outweighs its probatory value but even this rule would non forestall the exclusion of otherwise admissible grounds on the footing that the method of obtaining it was unjust. Ormerod [ 4 ] opines:

“What was needed from the Lords was elucidation of the range and theoretical foundation of a discretion that might break secure equity in the pre-trial stage of the condemnable procedure. These inquiries were acknowledged by Lord Scarman but the five diverse and confounding addresss failed to present a satisfactory answer.”

However, it might be possible to seeAmerican ginsengnon as a fatal dismissal of Professor Dennis’ rule but instead as a impermanent reverse. This might be regarded as more of an chance lost and agree with Ormerod’s decision ( at p.159 ) that:

“It seems safe to foretell that discretions will accomplish an even greater significance in the condemnable test over the following 50 old ages, as the tendency off from fixed regulations of admissibility gathers momentum…”

R V Betts and Hall[ 5 ] supplies an of import restraint upon the effects of neglecting to mind the cautiousness that a defense mechanism may be harmed by failure to reference something which might later be relied upon at test. On entreaty against their strong beliefs for bring downing dangerous bodily injury, the suspects contended that misdirecting waies were given to the jury on the failure to advert such affairs and, more significantly, that the jury were misled about the grounds given for their failure to reply inquiries during interview. The strong beliefs were quashed. It was held that the drawing of inauspicious illations was merely appropriate where an averment was made in tribunal that had non been mentioned antecedently and that it was incorrect for the jury to pull inauspicious illations from their failure to reply inquiries because they were advised to make so by a canvasser. It should hold been made clear that it was the genuiness of their determination to stay soundless that should hold been considered. Interestingly in this instance, trust was besides placed upon the Human Rights Act 1998, Sch.1, Part I, Art.6.1 with it being concluded that it was contrary to this proviso to go forth a jury at autonomy to pull an inauspicious illation notwithstanding their satisfaction with the plausibleness of the account. Birch and Barsby [ 6 ] remark upon the important findings of a Home Office Research Study [ 7 ] into the effects of the “new” signifier of cautiousness. Apparently, suspects are now encouraged to talk more and be given to “flannel” therefore unwraping tangible prevarications. This decision does non set good with the Dennis rule and it is hence encouraging that the Court of Appeal inBetts & A ; Hallwas prepared to put restraints upon the ability of juries to pull inauspicious illations in such fortunes. Despite the dissatisfactory decision inAmerican ginseng, all three of the above illustrations underline the importance of Professor Dennis’ decision that a safe strong belief must possess “the component of moral authorization necessary for the justificatory and expressive maps of the verdict” .

2 )R V Terry

Defence Counsel wishes to cross-examine Hilda as to her sexual history. Section 41 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 imposes aPrima facieprohibition upon the debut of such grounds. Controversially in the instance of Hilda the subdivision makes no differentiation between grounds of her history of sexual activity with Terry and the other spouses referred to. Such grounds can non be introduced without the leave of the tribunal. The Act provides for merely four specific state of affairss in which such leave may be granted:

  • S.43 ( 1 ) ( a ) : Where the grounds or inquiry relates to a relevant issue in the instance and the issue is non that of consent ;
  • S.43 ( 1 ) ( B ) : Where the grounds or inquiry relates to an issue of consent and the relevant behavior is alleged to hold taken topographic point at or about the same clip as the capable affair of the charge ;
  • S.43 ( 1 ) ( degree Celsius ) : Where the grounds or inquiry relates to an issue of consent and the grounds is so similar to the alleged behavior of the plaintiff with another that it can non moderately be explained as a happenstance ;
  • S.43 ( 1 ) ( vitamin D ) : Where the grounds or inquiry relates to grounds adduced by the prosecution and goes no further than is necessary for the accused to refute it.

Consequently, there would hold to be close examination of the grounds that is available in regard of Hilda’s sexual activity with others in order to find whether it satisfies any of the above standards.

Terry ab initio presented a false alibi. Doubtless the prosecution will wish to trust upon this and his subsequent abjuration of it. As is pointed out inPhipson[ 8 ] :

“The danger posed by [ this signifier ] of grounds include that a finder of fact might be distracted by any competition about any competition whether the behavior took topographic point and might besides overlook more guiltless possible accounts of the behaviour” .

There was once some uncertainness as to whether the justice was obliged to give the jury a particular warning in such fortunes nevertheless it now appears to be settled as a consequence ofR v Burge & A ; Pegg[ 9 ] that such a warning must be given:

  • Where the defense mechanism relies on an alibi ;
  • Where a way is given about the value of looking for grounds back uping a peculiar witness’s testimony and the accuser’s lies or evasive behavior might be treated as such back uping grounds ;
  • Where the prosecution seeks to trust on prevarications as grounds of guilt ; and
  • Where it is moderately envisaged that the jury may handle the prevarications as grounds of guilt even if the prosecution did non present them into grounds for this intent.

Issues arise as to the possibility of Freda attesting as to the whereabouts of Terry and the abrasions on his face. Section 80 ( 3 ) of PACE as amended by the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 provides that Freda will be compellable to give grounds against Terry merely if the offense involves an hurt or menace of hurt to her or that or a sexual offense against a individual under the age of 16 at the clip of the offense. These conditions do non use here. The fact that Freda has allegedly been threatened by Terry’s brothers does non convey her within the range of these commissariats. Section 80 ( 8 ) of PACE makes it clear that the “failure of the married woman or hubby of a individual charged in any proceedings to give grounds in the proceedings shall non be made the topic of any remark by the prosecution. This prohibition does non widen to the test justice.

So far as Hilda’s statement to her sister Joan is concerned, at common jurisprudence the “recent complaint” of the victim of a sexual offense was admissible to back up the unwritten grounds of the plaintiff but was non to be treated as grounds of what it states. This differentiation has been swept off by the Criminal Justice Act 2003 which extends the ailment regulation to all sorts of offenses. Section 20 of the Act provides that the recent ailment of the victim of an offense is admissible as grounds of the affair stated in proceedings related to that offense. However, certain conditions must be satisfied. These are:

  • The plaintiff has given unwritten grounds of the offense ;
  • The plaintiff could hold given unwritten grounds of the ailment when it was made ;
  • The plaintiff has vouched for the fact that the ailment was made and that it is true ;
  • The ailment concerns conduct that constitutes the offense or portion of the offense ;
  • The ailment was made “as shortly as could be moderately expected after the offense occurred ; and
  • The ailment was non made as the consequence of a menace or a promise.

It is non relevant that the ailment was elicited in response to a taking inquiry. Choo [ 10 ] suggests:

“This attack may be criticised for being unduly narrow. Of class it is true that there appears to be small necessity for the admissibility in grounds for their truth of statements of informants which are by definitionconsistent[ original accent ] with their present testimony. However, grounds of statements about an event made by a informant at an earlier clip ( and therefore closer to the clip of the event ) may, if it exists, be merely the type of grounds which a jury would anticipate to hear in add-on to statements about the same event made in court…the failure of a party to fulfill these outlooks may ensue in negative ( and frequently unjust ) illations being drawn against that party by the jury.”

In this instance, nevertheless, it is improbable that the allegation of colza made to Joan could be adduced in grounds by her non least of all by virtuousness of the fact that it was merely made some two hebdomads after the alleged event. In any instance, even if it were otherwise admissible, it could non be introduced if Hilda persists in her refusal to give grounds.

3 ) Defendant, Society and Victims: The Balancing Role of the Law of Evidence

Phipson[ 11 ]remarks that:

“Law is normally divided into substantial jurisprudence, which defines rights, responsibilities and liabilities ; and adjective jurisprudence, which defines the process, pleading and cogent evidence by which the substantive jurisprudence is applied in practice.”

In speech production of “rights” it is common to concentrate upon specific facets of the substantial jurisprudence: the right non to be the victim of a condemnable act, the rights in the jurisprudence of carelessness that one’s neighbour must take attention non to do hurt and rights such as those embodied in the European Convention such as the right to life. However, the adjective jurisprudence of which the jurisprudence of grounds signifiers a portion is every bit of import in the saving of rights. This operates in two ways: by guaranting the just application of the substantial jurisprudence and, in certain cases, by the direct application of the commissariats of the European Convention such as Article 8 which demands respect for private and household life and, in peculiar, Article 6. This is headed “Right to a Fair Trial” and provides:

“1.In the finding of his civil rights and duties or of any condemnable charge against him, everyone is entitled to a just and public hearing within a sensible clip by an independent and impartial court established by law.”

The familiar given of artlessness is enshrined in Art 6 ( 2 ) and in the condemnable sphere, certain rights are expressly protected including, in Art.6 ( 3 ) ( vitamin D ) the right “to examine or have examined informants against him and to obtain the attending and scrutiny of informants on his behalf under the same conditions as informants against him” .

In the popular perceptual experience, the regulations of grounds are frequently seen as favoring the guilty. From this position, hence, it might be argued that while the jurisprudence of grounds protects the rights of the suspect, it is inattentive of the rights of the victim and of society at big. It is submitted that this is wrong. The rights of society are less easy to find in the condemnable context than the really obvious entitlements of the suspect to be treated reasonably. It might be argued, nevertheless, that there is a community of involvement between the suspect and society to a really high grade. Totalitarian governments which trample rough-shod over basic autonomies and human rights are non functioning the best involvements of that peculiar society. Maltreatments of human rights such as the denial of justness and the infliction of disproportional sentences are dehumanizing and therefore damaging to society as a whole.

So far as victims are concerned, there is an built-in benefit to the victim in guaranting that if a individual is found guilty, they are really the culprit of the offense and that the decision of their guilt has been decently and reasonably established. The jurisprudence in this legal power has been tardy in its acknowledgment of the rights of victims but there is now grounds of a gradual betterment. Chapter 1 of Part II of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act has implemented a strategy of particular steps in regard of the intervention of vulnerable and intimidated informants ( the most usual and obvious illustration of which will be the victim himself ) . Sections 16 and 17 of the Act allow the devising of a particular steps way in regard of those informants that are eligible by ground of age, incapacity or fright or hurt. Sections 21 and 22 of the Act make particular commissariats in regard of kid informants. The push of the available particular steps is to do the proceedings less intimidating to the informant and include such everyday practical stairss such as the hard-on of a screen to forestall sight of the suspect and the remotion of wigs and gowns. These are of no concern in relation to the reconciliation of the involvements of victim and suspect. However, the handiness of a unrecorded nexus under s.24 begins to gnaw the traditional rules of an adversarial system – the victim is afforded a grade of separation and comfort that is denied to the suspect. Of still greater concern is the process which now exists for the pickings of grounds in head by agencies of vide entering under s.27. Not merely is this susceptible to the unfavorable judgments and more refering the privileged intervention of informant by comparing with suspect advanced above, it is capable of puting such grounds upon a entirely different terms: inMullen[ 12 ] the Court of Appeal approved the replaying of such grounds at the petition of the jury albeit merely in exceeding fortunes in the discretion of the test justice.

In add-on to the above, the tenor of current public and political sentiment which found look in the Criminal Justice Act 2003 farther jousts the balance against the suspect. A premier illustration of this is to be found in the intervention of grounds of character. Whereas the debut of a defendant’s old strong beliefs was antecedently extremely unusual and could merely happen in really carefully defined fortunes, s.101 ( 1 ) of the 2003 Act now provides seven state of affairss in which bad character is admissible. While some of these are comparatively innocuous ( understanding between the parties ) or already existed ( the suspect has made an onslaught on another person’s character ) , some are potentially upseting such as “it is of import explanatory evidence” or “it is relevant to an of import affair in issue between the suspect and the prosecution” . These commissariats have but late been implemented and it is hence excessively early to measure the extent to which the latitude seemingly introduced by them will be abused. However, inR V Bradley[ 13 ] the political jussive mood which appears to drive current reform of the condemnable justness system was condemned:

“It is more than a decennary since the late Lord Taylor of Gosforth CJ called for a decrease in the downpour of statute law impacting condemnable justness. Unfortunately, that call has gone unheeded by consecutive governments…The commissariats [ on grounds of bad character ] have been brought into force prematurely before appropriate preparation could be given by the Judicial Studies Board…In the interim, the bench and no uncertainty the many condemnable justnesss bureaus for which the Court can non talk, must, in the phrase familiar in the Second World War, ‘make do and mend’” .

Unfortunately, the eroding of the rights of the suspect by the 2003 Act does non stop at that place. Incredibly in the visible radiation of the traditional prohibition of hearsay grounds by English Law, the Act now provides that rumor grounds is admissible in a figure of specified fortunes. Potentially the most sinister of these is s.114 ( 1 ) ( vitamin D ) where “the tribunal is satisfied that it is in the involvements of justness for it to be admissible” . Although this rule is qualified by exclusions based on such factors as “reliability” , there is range for grave concern. Dennis [ 14 ] concerns ( in regard of the “interests of justness exception“ ) :

“It will be interesting to see whether the discretion remains as intended, a fringy sweeping-up power runing outside the statutory and common jurisprudence exclusions as in ss.116-118, or whether in pattern it will be invoked in add-on to, or even in permutation for, those exceptions.”

In decision it is submitted that the balance of the involvements of suspect, victim and society has become severely distorted. A tendency which began life as a applaudable effort to raise the profile of the victim in the condemnable justness system and afforded commendable protections and aid in affairs such as the manner in which grounds was given has culminated in the extension of such steps to the extent that the equal engagement of the suspect in the adversarial procedure has become prejudiced. This was possibly a natural and ineluctable effect of heightening the position of the victim. What is less excusable is the stepping down of centuries of settled legal rules such as the right to hush, the right to a test on the grounds of the facts of the offense uncoloured by perceptual experiences originating from the cognition of the bad character of the suspect and the right to be tried for the most portion on the footing of first manus grounds as a consequence simply of short term political expedience on the portion of a authorities seeking to steal the apparels of the Law and Order anteroom traditionally associated with the current resistance in order to be seen to be “tough on crime” . The eroding of such traditional values in add-on to corrupting the balance of involvements between suspect and victim, amendss the involvements of society as a whole: a society can non put claim to be merely and civilised when its Torahs of grounds are invariably tinkered with in order to fulfill the political caprice of the minute. It is to be hoped, hence, that the deplorable commissariats of the 2003 Act will in the comprehensiveness of clip become consigned to the ashcan of history and regarded as aberrance instead than development. One possible accelerator for this may be the examination to which this statute law will hopefully be subjected in footings of its conformity with Articles 6 and 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights.


Birch D. & A ; Barsby, C. ,Test: Defendant’s Failure to Mention, when Questioned, Facts Relied on at a Trial( 2001 ) Crim LR 754

Case Comment,Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, s.76 – Admissibility of Confession – Oppression by Police( 1994 ) Crim LR 361

Choo, A. ,Evidence, ( 2006 )

Dennis, I. ,The Criminal Justice Act 2003: Part 2( 2004 ) Crim LR 251

Malek, H. ( Ed. ) ,Phipson on Evidence, ( 16ThursdayEd. , 2005 )

Ormerod, D. ,The Development of the Discretionary Exclusion of Evidence, ( 2004 ) Crim LR ( 50ThursdayAnniversary Edition ) 138