The acceptance of Information and Communication Technologies by the health care sector in general has gained the attending of research workers in recent twelvemonth with legion articles, diaries and books being written, reviewed and published on the subject. Concepts such as “ ehealth ” , “ telemedicine ” , “ mhealth ” have emerged and the organic structure of literature around each is turning. Technology is adopted to ease the bringing of appropriate wellness services to the populations of the universe. Specifically, engineering in health care contributes to wellness information sharing, cognition direction, wellness monitoring, garnering statistics and analysis, and in run intoing internationally agreed upon wellness marks within health care sector ( UNDP, 2003 ) . In this wide research country, different countries of focal point have been highlighted such as the effects of specific engineerings on health care, informations aggregation and analysis, developing states, specific diseases, Health Information Systems to call a few.
It is the purpose of this research to add to the organic structure of cognition by concentrating on the Reproductive Health Care bomber sector by offering in-depth analysis of the jobs, chances and technological revolutions that for tip generative wellness sections towards acceptance of engineerings. Noting that the impact of engineering on wellness attention have been peculiarly important in developing states and in rural scenes ( Geissuhler, Ly, Lovis, & A ; L’Haire, 2003 ) this research farther focuses on nomadic engineerings for two grounds: one, the “ mobility ” of the engineerings means they can be used to make populations and geographical locations unapproachable by other engineerings and two, there has been rapid growing in nomadic engineerings.
Cardinal footings: Mobile engineering, mhealth, generative wellness attention ( RHC )
Mobile engineering is a corporate term used to depict nomadic devices, the nomadic telecommunications webs, platforms for development and deployment of enabling engineerings, nomadic applications, nomadic location engineerings, and content bringing formats.
The most identifiable constituents of nomadic engineerings are the devices which include:
laptop and net book computing machines
palmtop computing machines or personal digital helpers ( PDAs )
nomadic phones and ‘smart phones ‘
planetary placement system ( GPS ) devices
radio debit/credit card payment terminuss
These nomadic devices use a assortment of communications engineerings such as:
radio fidelity ( WiFi )
informations networking services for nomadic phones such as ‘third coevals ‘ ( 3G ) , planetary system for nomadic communications ( GSM ) and general package wireless service ( GPRS ) , Universal Mobile Telecommunications System ( UMTS )
Short Message Service ( SMS )
Wireless Application Protocol ( WAP ) which is an unfastened and planetary criterion for nomadic solutions, designed specifically to present web information to Mobile terminuss.
Global Positioning System ( GPS )
Wireless Access Protocol ( WAP )
extensile Markup Language ( XML )
Wireless Markup Language ( WML )
For the generative wellness subsector, acceptance of nomadic engineerings provide new methods to circulate information, petition for services, track household planning stock list, collect, analyze, exchange and shop informations. The devices, communicating engineerings and standardised application development platforms make information sharing possible anytime and anyplace
Harmonizing to Elder & A ; Clarke ( 2007 ) , there is constructing enthusiasm about the function engineering plays in the wellness sector. One of the chief grounds for the enthusiasm is the rise in the incursion of nomadic devices that can ease the bringing of of import wellness services particularly in developing states. Specifically, nomadic phones are seen as a more advantageous engineering for the wellness sector. There are several grounds why nomadic phones have high acceptance rate in any sector and more specifically in health care. First, nomadic phones use the wireless spectrum so there is no demand to trust on physical substructure such as roads, phone wires electrical grid ( Economist, 2008 ) . The singularity of this engineering makes nomadic phones a good leapfrogger. Second, beyond basic connectivity, nomadic phones offer benefits such as mobility and security to proprietors ( Donner, 2006 ) . Third, nomadic phones merely require basic literacy, and hence are accessible to a big section of the population. Fourth, mobiles enjoy some proficient advantages such as transportation of informations, which can be used in the context of applications for the intents of wellness. Finally, due to factors like increased private sector competition and advanced payment methods such as pre-paid methods, nomadic phones are progressively low-cost to the lower strata of the population and thereby can be used as a mechanism to guarantee greater engagement of these groups in the development procedure.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
THEORETICAL/ CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
The acceptance of radio engineering in Reproductive Health Care falls forthrightly within the research sphere of engineering acceptance within by organisations. This subdivision explores the theories that have been used in Information Systems ( IS ) research to explicate how engineering diffuses and is adopted by assorted establishments. Mobile engineering acceptance is no different from other engineerings in footings of why organisations choose to follow and can hence be explained by the same theories. These theories include:
Diffusion of Innovation ( DOI ) Theory
The Innovation Diffusion theory has been described by Rogers ( 1995 ) who defines the footings “ invention ” and “ diffusion ” . Harmonizing to Rogers, invention is an thought, pattern, or object that is perceived as new by an single or unit of acceptance while diffusion is
“ procedure by which an invention is communicated through certain channels over a period of clip among the members of a societal system. ” The rate of diffusion of a engineering is dependent on the comparative advantage it offers the following organisation, its compatibility with bing systems, complexness of usage and whether consequences of utilizing the invention can be observed and if the invention can be tried before full acceptance. ( Rodgers, 1995 )
Technology Acceptance Model
Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) argues that attitude towards engineering affects its usage, acceptance and diffusion. The variables that have an affect on users attitude are sensed easiness of usage and perceived utility of the engineering.
( Venkatesh 1999 ) . Hu et Al. ( 1999 ) used empirical surveies to prove the Technology Acceptance Model utilizing physician credence of telemedicine engineering.
Organizational Innovation Theory
Another position as to why organisations adopt engineering argues that the diffusion of invention as explained by Rodgers ( 1995 ) does non capture the complexness of endeavor degree determinations. This consequences in a different theory that focuses on the influence of organisational features on engineering acceptance determinations ( Damanpour, 1991 ) . Advocates of this theory argue that organisational size, construction, scheme are variables that affect invention acceptance.
Another theory used to explicate how and why organisations follow engineerings is the institutional theory which emphasizes the function of environmental factors such as competition, seller influence, and authorities ordinances on an organisation ‘s determination to follow engineering. In the instance of emerging tendencies such as acceptance of nomadic engineerings, organisations may merely mime other organisations seen as being more successful in the same field of operation ( King et al. , 1994 )
This theory identifies input provinces which result in an result following a set procedure. Harmonizing to Marcus and Robey ( 1998 ) the procedure theory is based on development and usage of phase theoretical accounts. Each phase describes how acceptance and execution procedures unfold and the conditions necessary for certain results to happen. Different research workers have emphasized on different phases in engineering acceptance. Rogers, ( 2003 ) proposed a five-stage theoretical account affecting consciousness of an invention, persuasion to follow the invention, doing the determination to follow, implementing the invention and eventually measuring the results of following the invention. Rogers phase theoretical account construct upon the six phase theoretical account foremost antecedently proposed by Kwon et.al. ( 1987 ) . The six phases can be summarized as follows:
Gathering information sing engineering capablenesss,
Measuring organisation jobs and chances
Finding a lucifer between problems/opportunities and technological solution
Make determination to put resources for the execution attempt
Developing, put ining and keeping the Invention in the organisation context
Training users on the new invention and processs
Organization commits to utilizing the engineering
Use of the engineering application is encouraged as a normal activity
Increased organisational effectivity by utilizing the IT application in a more comprehensive and incorporate mode
The implicit in factor in all the research theories is that engineering acceptance by an organisation is initiated when the organisation becomes cognizant of a demand for alteration. This consciousness is can either be a “ need-pull ” triggered by a job or chance within the organisation or a “ technology-push ” when internal or external forces promote a new engineering that promises to heighten organisational public presentation. To the organisation, it is a value lack, either bing or expected to go on ( Rouse, 2005a )
Guided by the phase theoretical accounts described in the Process Theory, this research has identified the independent and the reliable variables as described in this conceptual model.
Problems within RHC
Opportunities within RHC
Mobile Technology acceptance in RHC
A Conceptual model for research on Wireless Technology Adoption. ( Researcher, 2010 )
The research will place the particular jobs and chances within the Reproductive Health attention sector that are addressed by acceptance of radio engineerings every bit good as the internal and external factors that push engineering to the generative wellness establishments. The research will the show the theoretical account stages that the independent variables go through to act upon the dependant variable which is the acceptance of radio engineering by in Reproductive wellness attention.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
( 1 ) What jobs and chances exist in Reproductive health care to justify acceptance of nomadic engineerings?
( 2 ) What type of generative wellness information can successfully be delivered utilizing Mobile engineerings?
( 3 ) What impact does acceptance of nomadic engineerings have on Reproductive health care?
( 4 ) Is the nomadic engineerings acceptance on Reproductive health care cost-efficient and sustainable?