Human and Moral Value Development JEAN-PAUL-SARTRE (1946) * A French “philosopher-novelist who once said “ we humans are all beings in a situation, for they form us and decide our possibilities” VALUE (Technical Meaning) * It is derived from the Latin word “valere” means worth of something VALUES and HUMAN * VALUES are intimately related to man especially in his drive to find meaning of his existence. * VALUES serve as the main thrust that propels human to reach his goals, his objectives, his aspirations and ambitions in life The 9 Aspects of VALUES 1. VALUES are chosen freely It does not enforce themselves to the person. It is invitational, freely and voluntarily * It is a human act 2. VALUES are chosen reflectively * From the many alternatives, one must contemplate thoroughly in choosing and decision making 3. VALUES are chosen from alternatives * The person chooses many alternatives of “values” that is present in his environment. 4. VALUES are prized * The chosen values are appreciated, treasured and upheld. 5. VALUES are publicly affirmed by beholders * Values are acknowledged by the person through performing activities based on the principles he or she recognized. . VALUES are acted upon * Values are not merely treasured but are intended to be realized and performed. 7. VALUES are shared * People tend to share their values to all from their family friends, neighbors and the society as a whole. 8. VALUES are continually cherished and done repeatedly * If the chosen values create positive results, the person tends to repeat the said values. 9. VALUES become patterns of life. * When values are done repeatedly, it now becomes part of the person’s life and daily . CLASSIFICATIONS OF VALUES 1. INTRINSIC and INSTRUMENTAL VALUES INTRINSIC Values are those which are considered as values in themselves EX: Health * INSTRUMENTAL Values are those which are desired good because of their worth to us and others (gives inspirations) EX: Good Grades 2. ACCIDENTAL and NATURAL VALUES * ACCIDENTAL Values is subject to variability, temporality and impermanence. EX: Wealth * NATURAL Values are those that are permanent in nature. EX: Religion 3. PRIMARY and SECONDARY VALUES * PRIMARY Values are those values that are chosen, acted upon, cherished necessary for human development EX: Education * SECONDARY Values are those that are obligatory by nature.

EX: WORK 4. RELIGIOUS VALUES * These are those that enable to man achieved Absolute Good. EX: Regular Worship 5. CULTURAL VALUES * They are those values that embrace the society’s total achievements. EX: Fidelity or Faithfulness 6. SOCIAL VALUES * These values are understood as perfect, attributed to an object or attitude from the standpoint of relationship between means and ends in society. EX: HONESTY THE IDEA OF MORAL VALUE MORAL VALUES vis-a-vis HUMAN BEHAVIOR Moral values refer to those qualities of an act performed by man freely and knowingly Because HUMAN BEHAVIOR designed to produce an end.

However, it is hard to understand and determine the cause and effect of human behavior One way of solving this problem is to understand our OWN BEHAVIOR as reflection to perceived needs and values. In choosing these values, we tend to focus our needs and wants. We select values based on the following criteria of common decision making values like: 1. Independence – freedom from constraints 2. Autonomy – self-determination. 3. Privacy/confidentiality – fear of invasion. 4. Self-esteem – need to value oneself. 5. Well-being – freedom from pain and suffering . Security – Control of fear and anxiety 7. Sexual and Spiritual Support – Fulfillment 8. Freedom from Disability – physical and mental capacity. 9. Accomplishment – personal fulfillment. THEORIES of VALUES DEVELOPMENT As humans we are born with values. But this value system that we develop is dependent on the cultural framework in which we live in. The foremost theorists are JEAN PIAGET, LAWRENCE KOHLBERG, MORRIS MASSEY and CAROL GILLIGAN. JEAN PIAGET (Value Development) He theorized that children learn morality best by having to deal with others in groups.

He said that there was a process by which children conform to society’s norms of what is right and wrong, that process was active rather than passive LAWRENCE KOHLBERG (Moral Reasoning) He developed the Moral Stages of Moral Development -Pre-Conventional -Conventional -Post-conventional * PRE-CONVENTIONAL STAGE Children are doing the right and good thins based from punishment and reward * CONVENTIONAL STAGE Youth are obliged to do the right thing and what is acceptable in society based from the rules and laws of society. * POST-CONVENTIONAL STAGE

Adult decide to do what is good or bad based from their own principles and beliefs without considering the laws and rules in society. CAROL GILLIGAN (Feminism Value Development) Because of culture, boys have a more absolute view of what is moral while girls pay more attention to the situational and relationship factors. MORRIS MASSEY (Generational Value Cohorts) For him, the critical period of value programming is between birth and teens. Beyond this age values maybe changed unless we are affected by some significant emotional event.