IS INDUSTRIAL ADVANCEMENT THE REAL ADVANCEMENT ? ? Harsh Vardhan Jain Asst. Professor, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, INDIA Email: [email protected] com Mob. : 09977299177 Sujata Saxena Lecturer IIPS-DAVV, Indore, INDIA Email: sujata. saxena. [email protected] com Mob. : 09827299036 IS INDUSTRIAL ADVANCEMENT THE REAL ADVANCEMENT? Harsh Vardhan Jain, Sujata Saxena
ABSTRACT Certainly the Industrial Advancement is taking place, but along with Industrial Advancement, seeds of many environmental and social problems are being sown like pollution, deforestation, health problems, poverty, divorce, crime, international disputes and many others. So, the objective of this research paper is to find out whether Industrial Advancement is the Real Advancement or not. Based on secondary data available in journals, periodicals, news papers, magazines and on internet, attempt was made to know if there exist any correlation between Industrial Advancement and Social Degradation.
It was found that with increase in the number of industries and industrial production growth rate in various countries, the environmental problems, international disputes, and population below poverty line have also increased. The boom of Industrial Advancement is temporary and after a few years it will be over, but the problems sown by the Industrial Advancement will remain. Therefore the research paper concluded that Industrial Advancement is advancement but it is not a sustained advancement.
It is recommended that all of us especially the corporate people should first accept that Industrial Advancement is not real advancement and then take some positive steps towards the real advancement of humanity as a whole. INTRODUCTION Industrial Advancement has affected the life style of each and every individual in today? s world. All the countries, all over the world, are moving very rapidly towards the Industrial Advancement.
This Industrial Advancement has led us from Bullock carts to Airplanes, from thatched roofs to skyscrapers, from horse-ridden messengers to mobile phones and the ever-increasing use of computers in almost all the fields of human life. The Industrial Revolution has brought a drastic change in the human life. Many new factories were set up. Men, women and children were all out of their homes to work. The World War has destroyed almost everything tangible. There was immense scope of producing goods.
People were even deprived of there basic necessities. When Global Economy was collapsing, industries helped it to recover. All what was required was someone who could convert the available resources in the consumable form. This gave rise to new and newer industries. And some how or the other the needs of people were somewhat satisfied. This Industrial growth is still continuing today. But the subject matter of industries is now shifted from goods of basic necessities to the luxuries goods and services.
Efforts are now being made to set up more and more manufacturing industries, since the service industries can? t help much for Industrial Advancement. The concepts like liberalization and globalization have emerged and are now very popular in the whole world. All the major countries of the world are now growing faster and faster to contribute to the Global Economy. Indeed, the growth of any country is now being measured by the Industrial Advancement of the country. So, is it fair enough to consider the Industrial Advancement as the Real Advancement?
Well, in the subject matter of the Advancement of a civilization or say the Advancement of the Human Beings, one cannot ignore the social aspect of Human life. And the facts show that the Industrial Advancement has also lead to the Social Degradation. Industrial Advancement has made so many goods and services available to be consumed by the people in general. With the Industrial Advancement, the disposable income of the people has also increased. They can now buy more and more comforts via money. This has brought into picture the trend of consumerism.
Due to this, the feeling of competition in youth to show-off has increased. They have also built a strong hypothesis that they can buy everything from money. But when they can? t buy something from money, they could not accept this bitter reality and become frustrated. Then they try to get it by hook or by crook, compromising with the moral values. The repercussions of all this is leading the society towards the Social Degradation. Today, money-earning has become the aim of the life of the people in general. They have no idea of how one can derive peace by following the morals.
There are many examples from Mahabharata of such personalities, who have lived there life on the principles of virtue and were very peaceful, satisfied and wise in their dealings, like Vidur, Bhishmadeva, and the Pandavas. The real Brahmanas, in the Vedic era, wanted only their basic necessities, but were still satisfied. On the other hand there are many examples from today? s modern world of the people who possess great wealth and lot of money, but have no peace in their life due to threats of loosing it and getting various diseases and are not satisfied since continuously competing to get more.
People think of Mahabharata as mere fiction, but it is the real and factual history. A good economy is that in which there is sufficient food and milk, sufficient land for cultivation, where people are self-dependent, satisfied and happy, and where mental peace and no anxiety prevails. Economic advancement is required so that people can eat healthy and stay healthy. The real economic growth is not industrial growth, but this kind of growth. The Industrial Advancement is aimed at producing more and more mechanical luxuries and making more and more money.
But the essence of the nature has lost – the taste of grains, fruits & vegetables has lost, the fragrance of flowers has lost, and the fertility of soil has lost. The price of agricultural products is rising due to less production and the mechanical luxuries like television, automobiles, mobile phones and others are becoming cheaper due to their increasing production. But, unfortunately, when there will be scarcity of food, no one could eat money or nuts & bolts. When people are nearer to nature, they can understand that there is some authority behind nature, that is, God, and when they accept God? authority they become more duty-bound or more responsible. But the industrial-people do not understand the authority of God and think themselves as authority. As a result, their enjoyment tendency increases and they become less dutybound. Now-a-days, parents focus on their own enjoyment and give less care to children. When man tries to solve the problems of nature by himself, he creates more problems. With internal combustion engine we can move faster but it results in choking air pollution, greenhouse effect and a dangerous dependence on oil.
With nuclear power we have cheap energy but along with weapons of mass destruction and a rising tide of dangerous radioactive waste. With modern agribusiness we have a dizzying variety and abundance of food at supermarkets, but it also results in death of family farm, pollution of ground water, loss of precious top soil and many other problems. Even when there was no electricity, people used to live much regulated life. All works of their life were scheduled and performed according to sunrise and sunset. But now, when there is electricity, people work more in night.
This led to increase in competition, which in turn results in less stability and more uncertainty. Also, we have become so much dependent on electricity that most of our works stop when there is a power cut. When life was simple, people had time to think. Now, when the life is complicated and people are engaging more in sense gratification, they do not get time for themselves, for their families, societies and nations and for the purpose of human life, that is, God realization. Hence, the higher purpose has lost. When there were no industries, still people were happy.
The economy used to be based on agriculture. There was sufficient quantity and very good quality of grains. For instance, India was known as the „Golden Bird?. In ancient India, gold was given as charity to the qualified Brahamanas. But now, even friends or brothers fight for some hundred or a thousand rupees. Is that an advancement? Previously, people used to eat in silver plate, now we eat in plastic plates. What an advancement! The Industrial Advancement has resulted into immense competition, which in turn has increased enviousness and fighting spirit and decreased cooperation amongst people.
The humane feelings are being detached from the hearts of people. We have become like machines and leading an artificial life. Neglecting the emotional and mental needs, people are now engaged only in maintaining their status and making a show in the society. Is this advancement – no, this is degradation. So, this study is aimed at knowing whether considering Industrial Advancement as the Real Advancement of human society is right or not, since on one side Industrial Advancement has helped us to grow economically, but on the other it led to Social Degradation.
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES Some researchers talked about the impact of Industrial Advancement on the environment. Hibbert (1998) highlighted that there is an adverse impact of Industrial Advancement on the environment and therefore there is a need for keeping a check on the abuse of nature. Cimino (1975) discussed about the special hazards encountered in disposal of solid wastes, working environments & equipment and the epidemiology of illness & injury patterns in the solid waste industries.
Ngai (1998) tells that the situation of Malaysia, a newlyindustrializing country, that the physical systems there are disturbed and changed as a result of rapid economic development. The author tells “Combined with intensive development of hill slopes and hill land for housing, recreation, tourism, agriculture, highway and dam construction, and other human induced land use changes, the exposure and vulnerability of human populations to landslide hazards have also increased……….
As Malaysia pushes ahead to meet its target of becoming a fully industrialized country by the year 2020, further environmental degradation is expected to occur. ” Some other researchers talked about the impact of Industrial Advancement on the social life. Cooke (1991) highlights that today business ethics emerges as a popular topic because we rely on the capitalist paradigm and the sub-paradigm it has spewed, and they are not working since the complexity of the modern business world is outstripping these models. The author says “Indeed, this gap heightens the tension between one? instinctive role as a caring, humane person and one? s conditioned institutional role as a rational professional. ” David and Kandy (2006) state, “the development path taken by India is characterized by ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. There is much doubt, uncertainty, and debate in academic, political and social forums about whether India is on the right development path, as the nation attempts to graft western-style capitalist structures and technologies on to traditional ways of life. ” Yet other researchers talked about both environmental and social degradation.
Bartolini and Bonatti (2002) say that the resource is renewable, but its ability to regenerate declines with the level of aggregate production. They state “In the face of a decrease in the stock of the resource, households are induced to increase their participation in market activities in order to raise their income and buy more private goods. Hence, each household contributes to a further increase in aggregate production, thus causing additional damage to the resource? s ability to regenerate and feeding the growth process. Whittaker and Midmore (2000) say that critics often reproach the discipline of economics for supporting developments that result in environmental and social degradation. They identify where such censure is valid, but proceeds to argue that the rationale underlying economic techniques is at fault, rather than the techniques themselves. Hawken (1992) states, “We in America understand little of what business is, even though it is business that is destroying the world; business is the only mechanism powerful enough to reverse global environment and social degradation. Some researchers talked about sustainability. Caroll and Stanfield (2001) established a method to generate sustainable economic development that is resistant to social degradation. They point out, “Sustainable development is loosely defined as economic enhancement that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs……. A sustainable economic system must provide the commercial equivalent of consistency and cultural stability. ” Some researchers talked about crime rate.
Crespo (2006) highlighted that a large number of developing countries encountered rapid increases in crime rates during the past 20 years. Galrao et al. (2005) investigates the relationship between social interactions and crime for the case of a developing country that has shown increasing crime rates in recent years. Howe (2006) decries the increasing crime rate, government corruption, decline of common courtesy, rising incidence of street crime, and poor state of the sugar cane crop. The author refers to Trinidad and Tobago as an oil emirate, but says that the country is declining even as it grows wealthy from a large oil industry.
Smale (2005) looks into the issue of increasing crime rates in Missouri and found inverse relationship between lack of parenting and crime rates. Lehrer (2003) focuses on the factors that have contributed to the increasing crime rate in Baltimore. Some researchers talked about divorce rate. Fein and Maluccio (1992) reported that by the 1920s, with changing social and economic conditions the relative decrease in farm families, an increasing divorce rate, and larger numbers of women working outside the home.
Kharchev and Matskovskii (1981) focus on enhancement of the independence of women and consequences of increasing divorce rate. Wen-jen and Yu (2002) say, “Residents in Taiwan experienced better education, more political freedom, better health care, better nutrition, more welfare programs and benefits, greater home ownership, improved environment, more income inequality, more crimes, more traffic congestion and more divorces. Therefore, economic growth brought mixed outcomes in social development. ” All the related previous studies are done for a particular geographical area; no study has been done for the world as a whole.
This research paper presents a study of relationship between Industrial Advancement and Social Degradation on a global platform. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This study was taken to find out whether Industrial Advancement is responsible for Social Degradation or not and thereby to answer the question: Is Industrial Advancement the Real Advancement? Hence, the objectives of the study were: To find out whether International Disputes, Environmental Problems, and Population below Poverty Line increase with the increase in Number of Industries in various countries.
To find out whether International Disputes, Environmental Problems, and Population below Poverty Line increase with the increase in Industrial Production Growth Rate in various countries. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study has a descriptive research design. There are two main concepts in the study: i) Industrial Advancement, and ii) Social Degradation. Industrial Advancement in a country was measured through the following two variables: a) Number of Industries in that country, and b) Industrial Production Growth Rate in that country.
Social Degradation in a country was measured through the following three variables: a) International Disputes in that country, b) Environmental Problems in that country, and c) Population below Poverty Line in that country. The study is based on the secondary data collected from different sources like journals, websites, news papers and magazines. The sample for the study consists of thirty-four countries. Table-1 below shows the names of the thirty-four countries which make the sample for the study. Table-1 Names of Countries under Study
Australia Belgium Brazil Burma Canada China Columbia Cyprus Denmark Egypt France Germany Greece India Indonesia Iran Israel Italy Japan Kenya Malaysia New Zealand Poland Portugal Saudi Arabia Singapore South Africa South Korea Spain Switzerland Taiwan Thailand United Kingdom United States (Sample for the Study) DATA ANALYSIS Data for the variables, namely, Number of Industries, Industrial Production Growth Rate, International Disputes, Environmental Problems and Population below Poverty Line were obtained from website of Central Intelligence Agency (USA) – www. cia. ov and website of world encyclopedia – www. wikipedia. org. For analysis the data obtained, as mentioned above, was fed in Ms-Excel and correlation analysis was applied using Data Analysis ToolPak. The results obtained after applying the correlation analysis are given below in Table-2 and Table-3. Table-2 below shows that there is a slightly positive correlation between Number of Industries and International Disputes as the coefficient of correlation between them is 0. 01. This shows that International Disputes increases with the increase in Number of Industries.
The coefficient of correlation between Number of Industries and Environmental Problems is 0. 084 which again shows that there is a slightly positive correlation them and also shows that Environmental Problems increases with the increase in Number of Industries. There is a slightly more positive correlation between Number of Industries and Population below Poverty Line as the coefficient of correlation between them is 0. 138. This again shows that Population below Poverty Line increases with the increase in Number of Industries.
Table-2 Correlation between Number of Industries and International Disputes, Environmental Problems and Population below Poverty Line Indust. Indust. Int. Dis. Env. Prob. PBPL (%) 1 0. 010 0. 084 0. 138 1 0. 469 -0. 026 1 0. 263 1 Int. Dis. Env. Prob. PBPL (%) between Industrial Production Growth Rate and International Disputes and thus International Disputes increases with the increase in Industrial Production Growth Rate. There is a highly positive correlation between Industrial Production Growth Rate and Environmental Problems as the coefficient of correlation between them is 0. 42. This shows that Environmental Problems increases with the increase in Industrial Production Growth Rate. The coefficient of correlation between Industrial Production Growth Rate and Population below Poverty Line is 0. 191 which shows that there is a positive correlation between them. This again shows that Population below Poverty Line increases with the increase in Industrial Production Growth Rate. Table-3 Correlation between Industrial Production Growth Rate and International Disputes, Environmental Problems and Population below Poverty Line IPGR (%) Int.
Env. PBPL (2008 Dis. Prob. (%) est. ) IPGR (%) 1 (2008 est. ) 1 Int. Dis. 0. 217 0. 469 1 Env. Prob. 0. 642 0. 263 1 PBPL (%) 0. 191 0. 026 (Correlation analysis from MS-Excel Data Analysis ToolPak) Note: In Table-3, the full forms of the abbreviations used are: IPGR = Industrial Production Growth Rate, Int. Dis. = International Disputes, Env. Prob. = Environmental Problems, PBPL = Population below Poverty Line. (Correlation analysis from MS-Excel Data Analysis ToolPak) Note: In Table-2, the full forms of the abbreviations used are: Indust. Number of Industries, Int. Dis. = International Disputes, Env. Prob. = Environmental Problems, PBPL = Population below Poverty Line. Table-3 below shows that the coefficient of correlation between Industrial Production Growth Rate and International Disputes is 0. 217. This means there is a positive correlation The above analysis based on the MSExcel Data Analysis ToolPak shows that International Disputes, Environmental Problems, and Population below Poverty Line increase with the increase in Number of Industries.
It also shows that International Disputes, Environmental Problems, and Population below Poverty Line increase with the increase in Industrial Production Growth Rate. CONCLUSION As the International Disputes, Environmental Problems, and Population below Poverty Line increase with the increase in Number of Industries and also with the increase in Industrial Production Growth Rate, the paper concludes that Industrial Advancement is responsible for Social Degradation and hence cannot be considered as a real advancement.
By setting up new and newer industries, we are making Industrial Advancement. In an industrially advanced country, there may be boom for temporary time period, but simultaneously it is also sowing the seeds of social and environmental problems like pollution, deforestation, health problems, dissatisfaction, poverty, frustration, divorce, crime and many others. After a few years the boom will be over, but the problems sown by the Industrial Advancement will remain as its byproducts. Therefore Industrial Advancement is advancement but it is not a sustained advancement.
The paper recommends that everyone especially the corporate people should not think whimsically that the Industrial Advancement is the real advancement, but logically and rationally first accept that Industrial Advancement is not real advancement and then take some positive steps towards the real advancement of humanity as a whole. REFERENCES Bartolini and Bonatti, (2002), “Environmental and Social Degradation as the Engine of Economic Growth”, Ecological Economics, November2002, Vol. 43, Issue 1.
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