Maori Case Study of Te Whanga Paemai: A place where whales and boats beach Business Heritage, Culture and Sustainability AMBH500 Assignment Three Tutor: Hemi Hoskins Student Name: Victor Chen ID Number: 11778342 Due Date: Thursday, November 18th, 2010 1. Discuss how the Te Whanga Paemai case study illustrates the significance and contribution of Maori culture to New Zealand business. Your answer should include references to relevant tikanga and its co-existence with law. Based on the information provided in the case study and the facts of the history, Maori culture did very important contribution to New Zealand economy and business.
This kind of contribution has two sides: the acceleration on developing economy and business and protection on nature and traditional culture. Firstly, after the Te Whanga Paemai was settled by Ngati Tu Wha awei iwis, it provided an attractive settlement site to Maori: cliffs surrounding, various caves, excellent anchorage and natural springs. All these conditions are the foundation of economy and business development. Then, the Maoris started to hunt whales since they were the first iwis who contacted with Europeans. That was the initial development of Te Whanga Paemai.
At that time, whale products especially oil were commodities highly demanded, Ngati Tu Wha awei Maoris made good revenue by selling these products to Europe, Asia and America to make fuel, lubrication, corsets, stays, horse whips and so on. The second part in business and economic development was the basically from the Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 and in 1862. Ngati Tu Wha awei sold their estate to the Crown for one thousand pounds, a clinic and a school. When they invested their Treaty settlement into tourism, porpoise watch and guide dives, it was their tradition – part of their culture that helped them in making commercial benefits.
Also, as the case study said, their home stays, cultural performances and traditional food and art producing are cultural based businesses. With the development of recent years, more and more people came to Te Whanga Paemai for their holidays and tourisms. Apart from economic benefits they brought, there are disrespect, environment pollution and diminishing on the standard of living and lifestyle. These negative effects are mainly caused by visitors and further development.
Since the local iwis are against such development and willing to preserve the natural beauty and health of the bay and their tradition, it is behaviour of maintaining long term existing, surviving and sustainable increasing on economy and business. Their culture is guiding them to balance economy, business and tradition and nature. It is a way of protecting New Zealand and its tradition. 2. Referring to relevant legislation outline changes that have occurred in New Zealand in terms of heritage management. Your answer should use the Te Whanga paemai case study to illustrate your points.
Ngati Tu Wha awei arrived at Te Whanga Paemai in approximately 1623, two hundred and seventeen years earlier than signing the Treaty of Waitangi. So before the Treaty, there were no official laws in New Zealand which could protect the peoples’ rights and relations between tribes. After the Europeans came to New Zealand and since the population of them became more and more, the British realized that they needed an official law to protect their rights and reinforce and make sure their domination. So in 1840 and in 1862, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between the Great Britain and New Zealand Maori tribes.
Then, the Treaty became the foundational document of the establishment of New Zealand. According to article the first, “The Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand and the separate and independent Chiefs who have not become members of the Confederation cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England abs” (The Treaty of Waitangi, 1840, s. 1), The Treaty actually admitted the leadership of British Queen to New Zealand. Till now, the head of New Zealand is still Queen of the Great Britain. The establishment of Historic Places Act 1993 No. 38 showed the changes in protecting historic sites.
The act stipulates nation is responsible for preserving, maintaining and restoring historic places and protects their value (1993, s. 2). Through the act’s implement, the government is doing efforts to conserve places like Te Whanga Paemai. Consequently, the exploitation to Te Whanga Paemai would be confirmed harmless and the original value can be maintained. In addition, to counter the problems met by Te Whanga Paemai such as marine life quality, noise and rubbish abandon, s. 12, s. 15 and s. 16 of Resource Management Act (1991) stipulates corresponding regulations. 3. Discuss Hgati Tu Wha awei approach to heritage management.
According to the information provided by the case study, in my opinion, there are basically three parts in the heritage management process of Ngati Tu Wha awei. The first part is from the initial settlement to the sign of Treaty of Waitangi. In this period, iwis in Te Whanga Paemai had a simple lifestyle: they lived there by the rich resources and sometimes they had beached whales for food. After the Europeans came, they started to involve in commercial whaling. Some of them worked in land to provision while some worked on whaling ships to hunt. There were many whale products highly needed in Europe, Asia and America.
Oil for clean fuel and lubrication, jawbones for ladies corsets and stays and horse whips, and of course, flesh for food. This traditional way of management is helpful to protect and preserve their heritage and culture. The way showed harmonious and sustainable characters in development. In fact, it is also a part of Maori culture that live with nature and environment with harmony and sustainability. Then, the second part is after the signing the Treaty of Waitangi. After that, iwis in Te Whanga Paemai could not live their original life anymore because they sold most of their tribal estate to the Crown.
It was a chance for them to have another kind of development through the way of having new western school and clinic. However, the Crown did not honour the Treaty so they did not get the chance they should have. Though they got three million dollars as apology, they lost the most traditional lifestyle and land which are bad for their heritage. The last part is the situation contemporarily. Since the demand for residential areas grew, new housing developments have been built. This action promoted the area and brought benefits.
However, there are also problems: visitors do not respect local Maori tikanga, pollution such as dirt bikes noise, abandoned rubbish and bonfires appeared. Local iwis recognised the problems and they want to stop these developments to protect and preserve the nature, culture and tradition. At the same time, they want to sustain their lifestyle and living quality. They are taking precautions after suffering loss. It can certainly do positive influences on their heritage management. 4. Using the Te Whanga Paemai case study evaluate changes in culture awareness and social frameworks within New Zealand.
According to Moss (2002, p. 24), cultural awareness is related to every aspects of society which means it is a significant part of social form. Long time ago in approximately 1623 since the Ngati Tu Wha awei arrived at Te Whanga Paemai and settled down, the process of building their culture began. At the same time, the original culture awareness started. At that time, they lived a primitive life which concluded hunting, fishing and utilizing the rich resources to survive. They had a self-sufficiency life and harmonious relationship with the environment and nature.
These characters formed a part of Maori culture later. But then, since more and more Europeans came to New Zealand, it became difficult to maintain their own way of life. Local iwis joined commercial activities such as whaling. People started to increase their demand from the nature to make benefits without concerning the environment. After signed the Treaty of Waitangi, Europeans became the mainstream of New Zealand gradually. In addition, more and more Europeans came to New Zealand. Consequently, iwis in the country were influenced by them and their original culture was not as apparent as in the past.
Live with the nature harmoniously and friendly was replaced by economic development since the Taone Nui city council supported to the idea of developing Te Whanga Paemai bay further but not preserve the nature is an example of change in culture awareness. On the other hand are the changes of social frameworks. Originally, iwis in Te Whanga Paemai lived a self-sufficiency life which formed the initial culture and society structure. But after the European settlers came, commercial economic activities replaced the self-sufficiency economy. Whaling is an example: Te Whanga Paemai iwis ate beached whales for food but not hunt them for ommercial motive. The result of commercial economic activities was social frameworks started to serve the economy. That was the most significant change on social framework. After that, people from multiple countries in the world came to New Zealand changed the proportion of population and social framework as well. 5. Discuss the paradox of environmental and cultural heritage management and the significance of this to the New Zealand economy. Your answer should utilise the Whanga Paemai case study to illrstrate your points. In the case study, the conflicts are mainly between environment, cultural heritage management and economy.
At first, Maoris in Te Whanga Paemai got what they need from the nature to survive. They used an environment friendly method to live in the area. At that time, the economy was developing very slowly since they had seldom accumulation. Then, Europeans brought new thoughts and social structure into Te Whanga Paemai when they came. Commercial behaviours were more and more with the rate of economy developing became faster and faster. At this time, negative influence started to appear. As the example of whaling, commercial whaling would brought the decrease of whale population for sure and influence the balance of people’s marine life.
On the other hand, more whaling stations in the land would bring pollution and rubbish to local environment since the process of rendering whales needed to burn wood and would make other litters. Nowadays, people who visit Te Whanga Paemai sometimes do not respect local Maori tikanga. Their arrival also produced rubbish, pollution and life quality decrease to the local iwis. However, the Taone Nui District Council still support the new development of housing. The development will raise property values, encourage more visitors and create economic benefits but will increase the pollution and damage cultural heritage at the same time.
In my opinion, iwis should create some methods to develop economy without doing harm to environment and cultural heritage. In other word, economy, environment and cultural heritage should be developed together so that the paradox can be solved. Reference Historic Places Act 1993, No. 38. Retrieved from. http://www. legislation. govt. nz/ Moss, H. (2002). The importance of developing cultural awareness. The Journal. 40(2), 24-27. Resource Management Act 1991. Retrieved from http://www. legislation. govt. nz/. The Treaty of Waitangi. 1840. Retrieved from http://www. legislation. govt. nz/.