This chapter will discourse the findings of this survey as outlined in the old chapter and decisions drawn. We will get down this chapter by sum uping the whole survey. Following, we will discourse the consequences in visible radiation of old surveies conducted by other research workers. Subsequently, we will place the theoretical and managerial deductions of the survey. Last, we will show restrictions of the survey and waies for future research. The chapter ends with the decision of the survey.

The chief aim of this survey was to analyze the relationships between the selling mix used by the company and the relationship quality a company had with their clients and their trueness. In add-on, these relationships were tested under a supply deficit state of affairs, to see whether the supply deficit state of affairs would chair the relationships between the selling mix and the relationship quality with client trueness.

Based on the literature reappraisal, four dimensions were identified for relationship quality, viz. service quality, trust, satisfaction and committedness. The four dimensions for the selling mix were merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity. For client trueness, four dimensions were besides identified, redemption, addition in repurchase volume, recommend and refusal to exchange.

A sum of four hypotheses were developed in this survey to fit the aims of the research. They are as follows:

Customer ‘s perceptual experience of the selling mix is positively related to client trueness.

Customer ‘s perceptual experience of the relationship quality is positively related to client trueness.

Customer ‘s sensed environment uncertainness moderates the relationship between marketing mix and client trueness.

Customer ‘s sensed environment uncertainness moderates the relationship between relationship quality and client trueness.

The information for this study was gathered from building companies registered with the Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) of Malaysia. A questionnaire was mailed to the building companies based on their CIDB ranking and geographical location, therefore guaranting that a representative sample was obtained. A sum of 800 questionnaires were sent out and 179 were punctually returned, giving this survey a response rate of 22.4 % .

To guarantee the goodness of steps, factor analysis and dependability trial were conducted to prove the information collected. Factor analysis was used to prove the cogency of the steps and the consequences showed that the extracted factors fit the conceptualized variables. Cronbach ‘s alpha was used to prove the dependability of the variable and the consequences showed that all variables had a sufficient degree of dependability. Bivariate correlativity analysis were conducted to find the inter correlativities amongst the independent variables and dependent variable. Regression analysis was used to prove the hypothesis and sub-hypothesis. The survey found that 3 of the hypothesis were partly accepted whereas the last hypothesis was rejected.

5.2 Discussions

The purpose of our survey was to determine whether a provider in the building industry should concentrate on their company ‘s selling mix ( cognitive constituent ) or should they alternatively focus more on the relationship quality ( affectional constituent ) they have with their clients, to guarantee that their client ‘s stay loyal to them. Further more, these relationships were besides tested under a supply deficit state of affairs, to see whether the relationships between the independent and dependent variables would alter, supplying us with valuable information for future usage. This is because the supply deficit state of affairs sporadically happens in Malaysia and later impacts the development of Malaysia as good.

Similar research was done by Cater and Cater ( 2009 ) and De Rutyer and Semejin ( 2002 ) in which emotional motive was the affectional constituent and rational motive was the cognitive constituent. Both researches found that both the affective and cognitive constituent positively influences client trueness. However, the affectional constituent seems to be much stronger than the cognitive constituent in their findings.

Our first hypothesis consequence seems to mirror those of other surveies. new wave Riel et Al ( 2005 ) , Yoo et Al ( 2000 ) and Kim and Hyun ( 2010 ) have established the effects of the selling mix on trade name equity. They found that companies puting in the selling mix, merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity, would make trade name consciousness and a positive trade name image. In this manner, trade name equity would be created, and when trade name equity exists, trade name trueness follows. For this survey, we replaced trade name equity with the provider ‘s equity and trade name trueness with the client ‘s trueness.

The consequences show that the company ‘s selling mix has a positive relationship on client trueness. The RA? value indicates that 29 % of the fluctuation in client trueness can be explained by the fluctuation in the selling mix. The survey found that purchaser ‘s in building companies placed great accent on the merchandise, monetary value and publicity, but non the topographic point. This is somewhat different from consequences obtained from new wave riel et Al ( 2005 ) , Yoo et Al ( 2000 ) and Kim and Hyun ( 2010 ) .

In the aforesaid surveies, consequences indicated that all the 4P ‘s had important impact on client trueness for their respective industries which were the chemical and retail industry severally.

As this survey was conducted in the building industry, we were covering with industrial merchandises like cement, steel bars, sand, bricks, which are really expensive and stand for a big sum in the cost of a edifice. Therefore, monetary value would decidedly be a really of import consideration when buying. The merchandise scope that a provider can supply is besides of import in keeping their trueness because a provider who carries a broad scope of merchandises will intend that purchaser ‘s need non beginning for other providers to carry through their demands. Therefore this consequence is consistent with our literature reappraisal happening that says merchandise and monetary value play an of import portion in keeping client trueness.

Promotions have besides been found to be important in keeping client trueness. Frequent advertizements seem to maintain the provider in the head of the purchaser ‘s head, therefore increasing both their behavioural and attitudinal trueness. With the current competitory state of affairs that exists in the building industry with many providers in the market and non many purchasers, providers need to keep their bing client ‘s by offering price reductions and volume discounts. These types of gross revenues publicities are closely related to the dimension of monetary value, therefore a really effectual method to keep client trueness. This is similar to what has been postulated by Yoo et Al ( 2000 )

Topographic point ( channel of distribution ) , was found to non positively affect client trueness. This is beliing with other findings antecedently highlighted in the literature reappraisal. Probably this dimension of the selling mix does non hold an impact on client trueness because purchasers of building companies do their buying virtually via the cyberspace, through the telephone or via autotypes. Buyers do non necessitate to physically travel to the purchaser ‘s office to put their orders, therefore distribution strength ( the figure of subdivisions the provider have all over Malaysia ) would non be of import to purchasers. Besides one time they place their order with a provider, the goods can be shipped anyplace in Malaysia as specified in the order. A purchaser in Kuala Lumpur can put an order with a provider in Ipoh for goods to be delivered to Johor Baharu. This is unlike the retail market in which distribution strength ( the figure of shops available ) helps to advance trueness because it makes it easier for the consumer to get their goods.

Our 2nd hypothesis explores the relationship between relationship quality and client trueness. Numerous researches have been conducted on this in the B2B every bit good as B2C contexts. The rational is that when the quality is good, the relationship is successful, therefore, taking to client trueness.

In general, similar consequences were found in this survey, in which we found that purchaser ‘s in building companies viewed the relationship quality they had with their provider as of import in keeping their trueness to them. The RA? value indicates that 33 % of the fluctuation in client trueness can be explained by the fluctuation in relationship quality. However, they did non see service quality as an of import dimension in relationship quality for keeping their trueness to the provider.

Even though past research workers like Caceres and Paparoidamis ( 2007 ) , Rauyruen and Miller ( 2006 ) , Hewett et Al ( 2002 ) , Hennig-Thurau and Klee ( 1997 ) , Storbacka et Al ( 1994 ) , Dorsch et Al ( 1998 ) and Crosby et Al ( 1990 ) has advocated that service quality will hold an impact on client trueness, findings in this survey indicate otherwise.

This could be caused by the gender and cultural profiles of our respondents every bit good as the context of the survey, which was the building industry. Harmonizing to Donthu and Yoo ( 1998 ) and Furrer, Shaw and Sudharshan ( 2000 ) , cultural influences will hold an impact on service outlooks.

All the old researches mentioned earlier were done in the Western cultural context. Customers in different civilizations or states will hold different degrees of service outlooks because civilizations differ in their forms of behavior and attitudes.

Donthu and Yoo ( 1998 ) and Furrer et Al ( 2000 ) used Hofstede ‘s typology of civilization to look into cultural differences on service outlooks. They found that clients in high power distance states, like Malaysia, were more likely to accept really low degrees of service quality or overlook it wholly. They would accept or digest hapless service bringing because of the service supplier ‘s expertness. For apparently hapless services, the clients of high power distance states would happen alibis for the service suppliers alternatively. Therefore, in this survey, purchasers in building houses in Malaysia do non see service quality as an of import dimension in keeping their trueness to their provider as opposed to their Western opposite numbers.

Donthu and Yoo ( 1998 ) and Furrer et Al ( 2000 ) besides found that client ‘s in feminine states like Malaysia which focused on values such as mutuality and relationships did non anticipate every service brush to be perfect and would give the service quality for more of import values to them like long term relationships. As 69.3 % of our respondents were from the Chinese race, the Confucian moral force of long term orientation would come into drama. The Chinese are more prone to salvaging face, regard for others and traditions. They do non like to kick and convey shame to others. Therefore, in line with this thought, our findings indicate that trust, committedness and satisfaction are of import in keeping client trueness in this survey.

Besides being a really collectivized state, Malaysian purchaser ‘s in building houses would ever be looking at how they can continue harmoniousness in their relationship with the provider and non “ sway the boat ” by kicking behavior on the service quality provided. They would be willing to overlook the deficiency or hapless service provided by the provider. Due to this fact, they do non see service quality as being able to keep their trueness to the provider.

Gender besides plays a function in service quality perceptual experiences and client trueness. Harmonizing to Gocek, Kursun and Beceren ( 2007 ) in a research on the function of gender in service quality perceptual experiences in the fabric industry, they found that males gave less importance to comprehend service quality received compared to females. Males were less bothered about how service quality could heighten their overall satisfaction degrees towards their provider, and finally on their trueness. Therefore, in our survey, 57.5 % of the respondents were males as compared to merely 41.9 % females. Therefore based on this, our findings indicated that service quality was non an of import dimension in guaranting their trueness.

In line with other research in the literature reappraisal, the recognized dimensions of relationship quality like satisfaction, trust and committedness were found to positively impact client trueness.

Hesket et Al ( 1994 ) , Storbacka et Al ( 1994 ) , Hennig-Thurau and Klee ( 1997 ) and Lam et Al ( 2004 ) postulates that when the client is satisfied, it will impact on the relationship strength and length of service and finally on the client ‘s profitableness and service as the key to an organisation ‘s success and long term fight.

Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001 linked trust to loyalty through public presentation whereas Sirdeshmukh et Al ( 2002 ) linked trust to trueness through value creative activity. Buyers need to experience that they can swear their providers and these can be exhibited by frontline employees ( trustworthy behavior ) and direction patterns ( trusty patterns ) .

Most research workers identify committedness among exchange spouses as cardinal to accomplishing client trueness. Morgan and Hunt, 1994, Dick and Basu, 1994 and Oliver, 1999, all agree that relationship committedness is similar to loyalty because of the effects exhibited like positive word of oral cavity, rebuy or buy back a product/service systematically and refusal to exchange.

Our 3rd hypothesis was besides partly accepted, in which the supply deficit state of affairs moderates the relationship between the selling mix and client trueness. In other words, the supply deficit state of affairs affects how the provider ‘s selling mix is perceived by the purchasers, and this would impact their trueness. As postulated by Wagner and Gopalakrishna ( 2001 ) and Kotler ( 1974 ) , providers in the building industry should be doing intelligent accommodations to the selling mix to concentrate on the chances presented by the supply deficit state of affairs.

Monetary value still remains the most of import constituent of the selling mix, particularly for purchasers in building companies because the procurance of edifice stuffs represents a big sum of the edifice cost. Therefore, providers must defy the impulse to raise monetary values as deficit conditions on the evidences of provider self-interest because by making so, they will free their clients alternatively.

Suppliers must besides guarantee that they do non cut down on production or merchandise lines because of a deficit in the misguided belief that it would non impact their client ‘s trueness. Even though there is a shortage supply state of affairs in the building industry, this does non intend that certain indispensable edifice stuffs are non required by the contractor during that clip. In fact, the whole scope of edifice stuffs from the structural, intermediate to the concluding phases in the building procedure is required, irrespective of whether there is a supply deficit for certain stuffs or non. Therefore, it is of import for providers to be aware of this fact, and guarantee that they carry a broad scope of merchandise solutions for their clients demands, even though during a supply deficit state of affairs.

The topographic point ( channel of distribution ) besides becomes of import during a supply deficit state of affairs in keeping client trueness. This is because during a supply deficit state of affairs, purchasers will seek to cut down their hazard of being unable to obtain their supply. Therefore, a rational purchaser will keep their trueness with a provider that has strength of distribution ( holding many subdivisions all over Malaysia ) to guarantee that they will be able to acquire their supply of edifice stuffs. A contractor based in Kuala Lumpur, might really good hold occupations all over Malaysia, therefore by purchasing from a provider that has many subdivisions all over Malaysia, this will guarantee better coordination in bringings to assorted occupation sites all over Malaysia due to the fact that there would be forces from the provider stationed in the relevant geographical country. The purchaser would experience more comfy and confident, therefore heightening their trueness to the provider.

Our survey indicates that publicity becomes less of import during a supply deficit state of affairs. This could be because in a deficit state of affairs, merchandises are able to “ sell ” themselves. Suppliers need non hold publicities and advertizements to keep their presence in the head of their clients during a deficit. Their purchasers are really much aware of their providers and their importance during a clip of deficit

Our concluding hypothesis was rejected, bespeaking that the supply shortage state of affairs does non impact the relationship between relationship quality and client trueness. In other words, the supply deficit state of affairs has no affect on how the purchaser views their relationship quality and their trueness with the provider. This is contradictory to findings in the literature reappraisal which posits that a supply deficit state of affairs is perceived as a hazard. Therefore, purchasers will seek to prosecute in hazard cut downing activities such as looking for other providers, therefore doing them less loyal to their bing provider.

However, our findings can be answered by a research done by Wood ( 2008 ) in the B2B context for wireless telecommunications. He found that when the purchaser was really satisfied with his relationship ( indicant of good relationship quality ) it would alternatively cut down the disposition of the purchaser to seek for new options, therefore positively act uponing the purchaser ‘s purpose to stay with the provider even during a supply deficit state of affairs. This positive satisfaction with the relationship will alternatively negatively act upon the purchaser ‘s perceptual experience of other available providers in the market, therefore guaranting the purchaser ‘s trueness to his/her bing provider.

5.2.1. Major consequences of the survey

Based on the account and treatment above, a sum-up of the major consequences are presented as follows:

The selling mix component of monetary value presented by a company has a positive affect on their client ‘s trueness

The selling mix component of merchandise presented by a company has a positive affect on their client ‘s trueness

The selling mix component of publicity presented by a company has a positive affect on their client ‘s trueness

The selling mix component of topographic point presented by a company does non hold a positive affect on their client ‘s trueness

The relationship quality component of service quality does non hold a positive consequence on client trueness

The relationship quality component of trust has a positive affect on client trueness

The relationship quality component of satisfaction has a positive affect on client trueness

The relationship quality component of committedness has a positive affect on client trueness

The relationship quality has a stronger affect on client trueness than the selling mix

The supply deficit state of affairs affects how clients view the selling mix presented by the company and this would impact their trueness.

The supply shortage state of affairs does non impact how clients view their relationship quality with a company, therefore non impacting their trueness.

5.3 Deductions of the survey

Based on the research findings, several deductions related to the theoretical and practical facets of direction will be discussed.

5.3.1 Theoretical deductions

The theory of cognitive-affective-conative-behavior was used in this survey to explicate the formation of client trueness. This theory suggests that client ‘s trueness is influenced by both cognitive and affectional constituents.

The cognitive constituents reflect that clients will do witting ratings based on information or cognition such as the monetary value or quality. ( Oliver, 1999, Sawmong and Omar, 2004 ) . Cognitive constituents in this survey are represented by the 4Ps, viz. merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity. ( van Riel et Al, 2005, Yoo et Al, 2000, Kim and Hyun, 2010 )

The affectional constituents reflect the fact that client ‘s emotions or feelings are likely to play an of import function in their behavior. ( Oliver, 1999 ) The affectional constituents in this survey are represented by relationship quality. ( Hewett et al, 2002, Rauyruen and Miller, 2006, Caceres and Paparoidamis, 2007 )

The conative-behaviour is accompanied by the desire to an intended action. ( Oliver, 1999 ) It can be exhibited through assorted ways through the client ‘s behavior ; most normally cited are repeat backing ( behavioral trueness ) and positive word of oral cavity ( attitudinal trueness ) .

The findings in this research is consistent with the postulated theory. Both cognitive and affectional constituents have an consequence on client trueness. In this survey, the RA? for marketing mix was 29 % and for relationship quality is was 33 % . This indicates that the relationship quality has a strong affect on client trueness than the selling mix. Research by Cater and Cater ( 2009 ) and De Rutyer and Semejin ( 2002 ) support this statement. In these researches, the affectional constituent was found to be stronger than the cognitive constituent. Customers hence seem to value the emotional “ we like ” more than the rational “ we benefit ” .

Cater and Cater ( 2009 ) surmises that because of this findings, clients are non every bit rational as they should be, or much more likely, that rational benefits are perceived as child in their determination devising. In this instance, the bosom regulations the caput in the devising of determination of continued trueness.

5.3.2 Managerial deductions

From this survey, we can pull several managerial deductions as follows:

The selling mix presented by a company plays an of import function in act uponing their client ‘s trueness. Therefore, directors should non pretermit the elements of monetary value, merchandise and publicity in their selling schemes. Price is a really of import consideration in buying in the building industry as edifice stuffs are really expensive and do up a big sum of the building cost. All purchasers in building companies would be really monetary value sensitive due to this fact. Directors must guarantee that they monetary value their merchandises competitively, harmonizing to the traveling rate. Pricing excessively high will hold a negative affect unlike consumer goods which provide an feeling of quality. ( Yoo et al, 2000 ) Directors should besides pay attending to publicities to maintain their company in the head of their client ‘s head. With the current competitory state of affairs that exists in the building industry with many providers in the market and non many purchasers, providers

demand to keep their bing client ‘s by offering price reductions and volume discounts.

These types of gross revenues publicities are closely related to the dimension of monetary value, therefore a really

effectual method to keep client trueness. This is besides similar to what has been

postulated by Yoo et Al ( 2000 ) . Last, directors should do certain that their companies

transport a broad scope of merchandises as this will guarantee that their clients need non beginning for

other providers to carry through their orders.

The relationship quality that a company has with their client is besides of import in keeping their client ‘s trueness. Directors should pay attending to their company ‘s relationship direction schemes and guarantee that their clients are satisfied, trust and committed to the relationship they have with the company. Directors should concentrate on frontline employees particularly gross revenues forces to guarantee that they exhibit trusty behavior. Management must guarantee that they are ethical and honest in their traffics with clients, therefore furthering a clime of trust. ( Sirdeshmukh, 2002 ) . To cultivate committedness, directors should put more accent on activities that produce strong positive feelings of association and chumminess between their company and clients. ( Kumar et al, 1994 ) . In general, satisfaction is a individual ‘s feeling of pleasance or letdown ensuing from comparing a merchandises perceived public presentation in dealingss to his or her outlooks. ( Storbacka et al, 1994 ) Therefore, directors should concentrate on merchandise and service quality and set in the attempt to making a high perceptual experience of these elements to guarantee that their client ‘s are non defeated, but delighted alternatively.

Supply deficits sporadically occur in the building industry. Therefore, directors need to cognize how to pull off their client trueness during such times. This survey shows that the supply deficit state of affairs affects how clients view the selling mix presented by the company and this would impact their trueness. Therefore, directors should be doing intelligent accommodations to the selling mix to concentrate on the chances presented by the period of uncertainness ( deficit ) . By acknowledging the altering environment, organisations can still retain their clients and heighten their profitableness. ( Kotler, 1974, Wayne and Gopalakrishna, 2001 ) . As merchandise, monetary value and topographic point have been found to impact client ‘s trueness during a supply deficit state of affairs, directors should concentrate on these three elements. This means that they should non merely increase monetary values, cut down merchandise lines and cut down on channels of distribution. Alternatively, directors should guarantee that they monetary value competitively, guarantee that they carry adequate merchandise lines and non close down any branches/cut down on gross revenues forces during a shortage state of affairs. As publicities was found to non impact client trueness during a supply deficit state of affairs, directors can so salvage some disbursement and cut down on their gross revenues publicity and advertisement budgets.

The supply shortage state of affairs does non impact how clients view their relationship quality with a company, therefore it does non impact their trueness. However, this does non intend that directors should pretermit the quality of the relationship they have with their clients. Directors should go on to make what they have been making during normal periods. Ensure that your clients are satisfied and happy with the bing relationship they have by continually run intoing their demands and pleasing them ever.

Overall, in a normal state of affairs, to keep their client ‘s trueness, a company should pay more attending to the relationship quality because it has been found to hold a stronger affect. However, this does non intend that directors can pretermit the selling mix, because it has besides been found to hold an affect on client trueness. Therefore, prudent directors should pay attending to both cognitive and affectional constituents to keep their client ‘s trueness. However, when a supply deficit state of affairs occurs, directors who focus on their selling mix can harvest significant additions in their client ‘s trueness as opposed to the relationship quality. For directors, this provides them with valuable information on which aspect to concentrate on to progress their client ‘s trueness. Therefore, they can explicate strategic programs that suit the bing state of affairs.

5.4 Restrictions of the survey

The consequences should be interpreted in visible radiation of the restrictions of the survey. They are as follows:

The sample surveyed. Our population for the survey comprised of all organisations registered with the Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) of Malaysia. There are many more contractors which are non registered with the CIDB. Therefore, the consequences should be carefully considered as being representative of the building industry as non all organisations in the building industry were sampled. It should be noted that 62 % of the respondents were private limited corporations which were locally owned. As such, smaller contractors might non hold adequate representation in this survey.

This survey was conducted in the building industry, therefore it may restrict the generalisation to other industries and concern to concern scenes.

The survey is based on perceptual experiences. As such, the built-in restrictions of perceptual experience surveies are acknowledged. The respondent ‘s responses represent what they consider to be facts instead than what the facts really are.

Another restriction might be that the information was collected via a ego administered questionnaire. There is concern in the survey that client do non ever execute as they say they will and might non reply truthfully for a assortment of personal or organisational grounds.

The survey asked for the questionnaire to be answered by person in the organisation who has done buying and experienced a supply deficit state of affairs before. It should be noted that there is room for prejudice as we can non determine that the respondent that answered the questionnaire fulfils that standards.

Due to the clip restraints, a cross sectional survey was conducted. As such, alterations in the variables under survey over clip, particularly the dimensions of relationship quality and client trueness may restrict the possibility to deduce causing.

5.5 Directions for future research

While this survey advances the cognition of client trueness in the building industry, it besides provides extra chances for future research. Future researches should see holding more or different selling mix dimensions alternatively of utilizing the 4Ps. This might take to different findings for client trueness. The same applies for relationship quality, in which different dimensions are used alternatively of the by and large accepted 1s of trust, satisfaction and committedness.

Future research can besides heighten this survey by holding a larger sample that covers all organisations in the building industry, irregardless of whether they are registered with CIDB. Hardware companies are besides involved in the building industry by providing edifice stuffs to contractors. They besides often encounter supply deficit state of affairss, therefore, for future research, they can besides be considered.

Because nil is manipulated in this survey, it is hard to do causal illations from the information. Perceived selling mix and the relationship quality could be illusory contemplations, distinct from the existent attempts put in by the company. To look into more exhaustively the causal impact of each independent variable towards trueness, future research workers could plan and carry on experiments pull stringsing the degrees of the independent and the moderating variables.

5.6 Decision

The chief aim of this survey was to analyze the relationships between the selling mix used by the company and the relationship quality a company had with their clients and their trueness in the building industry. In add-on, these relationships were tested under a supply deficit state of affairs, to see whether the supply deficit state of affairs would chair the relationships between the selling mix and the relationship quality with client trueness.

Overall, this survey has provided some empirical grounds that a company ‘s selling mix and the relationship quality with their clients has positive impact on their client ‘s trueness.

The selling mix constituents had changing grades of important relationships to client trueness. Product, monetary value and publicity were found to hold positive relationships with client trueness. Topographic point was found non to hold an affect on client trueness.

The relationship quality constituents besides had changing grades of important relationships to client trueness. Trust, satisfaction and committedness were found to hold positive relationships with client trueness. However, service quality was found non to hold any affect on client trueness.

Overall, relationship quality was found to hold a stronger affect on client trueness in the building industry.

Possibly the chief part of this survey is the grounds that the significance of cognitive and affectional constituents in client trueness alterations during a sensed environment uncertainness.

Cognitive constituents go more of import to client during a supply deficit state of affairs than affectional constituents. Cater and Cater ( 2009 ) subject of rational “ we benefit ” regulations against the emotional “ we like ” .

Therefore, the findings of this survey indicate that a provider in the building industry may heighten their client ‘s trueness by concentrating more on the relationship quality, but non pretermiting the selling mix, during a normal state of affairs. During a supply deficit state of affairs, they should concentrate on the selling mix, albeit non burying the relationship quality every bit good.

In summing up, based on the findings, a form of desirable strategic behavior can be identified for directors in the building industry to follow.