Collaboration and communicating among project squad members are indispensable for web based undertaking supervising system to bring forth existent clip studies. Up to day of the month information can get the better of possible jobs that will impact undertaking mark. Although Public Works Department of Malaysia ( PWD ) web based undertaking supervising system ( which is known as SKALA system ) can bring forth existent clip undertaking describing but it still depends on the existent clip input. This survey will concentrate on how SKALA system can go an effectual undertaking coaction and communicating platform. Hence it will automatically supply accurate existent clip input for SKALA system. The research methodological analysis will consist literature reappraisals, informations aggregation and analysis. Data aggregation will be based on interviews with experts and studies conducted from trying of undertaking squad members in PWD Headquarter, States and Districts. Finally, the expected determination is to place a theoretical account of coaction tool for SKALA system sweetening. This will help PWD to pull off and supervise all its undertakings in a timely mode in order to take prompt action.
It has been established that coaction and communicating among undertaking squad are critical in undertaking execution. On the other manus, it is besides indispensable for web based undertaking supervising system in accomplishing existent clip coverage. Since Public Works Department of Malaysia ( PWD ) has to pull off and supervise 1000s of undertakings at any point of clip, it must necessitate an effectual web based undertaking supervising system. Effective undertaking monitoring will take to motivate action by PWD in carry throughing the undertakings mark. This survey will concentrate on the coaction and communicating platform for PWD web based undertaking supervising system.
Although system integrating and coaction are non new research subject, it was believed to be the key for enabling engineerings that drives the building industry in bettering productiveness and efficiency ( Shen et al. , 2010 ) . Recent literatures are more focal point on computer-aided design coaction while really small attending was directed to turn to the possible usage of coaction engineering in undertaking stakeholder communicating ( Chung et al. , 2009 ) .
PWD is a authorities section that has been tasked with constructing and keeping public substructure in Malaysia. It was formed in 1872 as the proficient adviser to the Government. PWD besides implement undertakings and maintains public substructure in Malaysia such as federal and province roads, airdromes, authorities edifices, maritime and ports. PWD ‘s vision is to go a universe category service supplier and Centre of excellence in plus direction, undertaking direction and technology services for the development of state ‘s substructure through originative and advanced human capital and province of the art engineering.
Based on Strategy Map, PWD has to leverage on ICT to heighten its undertaking bringing system. In pull offing undertakings, PWD is involved in the planning, planing, procurance, implementing and supervising facets of the undertakings. In any undertaking execution, PWD has to equilibrate the clip, resources, cost and quality factors of the undertaking in order to accomplish the undertakings as per PWD aims and its clients ‘ demands.
During 9th Malayan Plan, based on SKALA undertakings ‘ records, PWD has been trusted by the Malayan Government to implement 5450 undertakings with the entire cost of RM40 billion in which 1200 undertakings are still in the building phase at the minute.
Since PWD is committed to present its undertaking to the client as stated in its nucleus concern aims in term of clip, cost and quality, it needs comprehensive monitoring tools to assist the administration to command its undertaking efficaciously and expeditiously. The studies produced are really critical for fast determination and policies doing to get the better of the jobs occurred during undertakings execution. Currently, PWD is utilizing a figure of systems or applications to put to death or supervise its undertakings. The systems or applications are based on assortment of package runing from commercial package such as Microsoft Project or Primavera to in-house development application.
SKALA is an official online undertaking supervising web page for PWD Malaysia and was foremost developed in-house by PWD Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) Branch in 1985. It was developed and customised to provide the demands of PWD ‘s chief nucleus concern which is project direction. SKALA information input is based on the work flow of PWD concern procedures which is governed by PWD ‘s certified ISO 9001 Quality Management System. In other words, the users ‘ apprehension of PWD ‘s concern procedures are handled by its Standard Quality Management System while SKALA merely automates all critical procedures such as undertaking be aftering certification, design quality program, building quality program and standard PWD ‘s contract disposal signifiers.
SKALA has been used by all PWD undertaking squad members throughout project life rhythm ( Figure 1 ) get downing from having undertaking from the clients until passing over the undertakings.
Figure 1: PWD ‘s Assorted Phases of Project Life Cycle and Project Team Members
The chief map of SKALA system is to bring forth existent clip undertaking position for all PWD forces every bit good as its clients. The online studies generated by SKALA include inside informations of undertaking information every bit good as undertaking public presentation such as undertaking advancement in term of clip and cost.
SKALA users comprises of PWD ‘s top directions and other forces in undertaking squads such as Program Managers, Head of Project Team, Head of Design Team, Procurement Officers and Project Site Team Members. At present, SKALA has more than 2000 registered users including PWD ‘s forces and its clients.
Shen et Al. ( 2010 ) indicated that one of the major jobs on system integrating and coaction in the building industry is “ hard to entree accurate informations, information and cognition in a timely mode in every stage of the building undertaking lifecycle ” . The statement is supported by Guo et Al. ( 2010 ) which had concluded that application of Life Cycle Management has non been successful because it is still deficiencies of an effectual communicating and coaction information platform.
At present, some of the position coverage in SKALA is non up to day of the month due to miss of existent clip input from undertaking squad members. For illustration, extra range alterations by the client is submitted at later clip into SKALA system. Although SKALA can bring forth existent clip undertaking coverage and statistics but it still depends on informations input from the undertaking squad members. In other words, the ‘real clip ‘ study will depend on the `real clip ‘ input. This synchronism issue will reflect on current undertaking position due to the hold of informations input. Figure 2 shows the relationship between existent clip informations input and coverage in SKALA.
Figure 2: Relationship between existent clip informations and existent clip coverage in SKALA
Since any job demand to be address quickly, the undertaking director should depends on the system that can supply timely indicant of undertaking jobs, whether they are existent or possible Cheung et Al ( 2004 ) . To acquire existent clip informations input, SKALA system must go a dependable coaction tool to better the coaction and communicating among the undertaking squad members.
The purpose of the Study
The purpose of this survey is to suggest a theoretical account of coaction tool for SKALA system that will help PWD to pull off and supervise all its undertakings in a timely mode.
The aims of the survey are set as followed:
To look into the undertaking coaction and communicating demand in project life rhythm
To place the defect of undertaking coaction and communicating tool in SKALA system
To propose a systematic tool for SKALA sweetening sing undertaking coaction and communicating.
Scope of the Study
The range of this survey will merely cover internal communicating activities and coaction in project direction among PWD undertaking squad members. The PWD undertaking squad members include Program Manager, Head of Project Team, Head of Design Team, Procurement Offices and Project Site Teams in PWD Headquarter, States and Districts.
Summary of Chapter
This Chapter is the overview of the survey which includes the debut of the subject, the job statement, the intent, objectives every bit good as the range of the survey.
This subdivision will show the related research and information on undertaking squad members ‘ coaction and communicating in web based undertaking supervising system.
Although undertaking direction is basically about pull offing a undertaking from its construct to its completion through its project life rhythm, the accent is on the communicating and information direction via web based undertaking direction ( Polit and Catalunya, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to PMBOK ( 2004 ) , “ undertaking monitoring should be performed so that possible jobs can be identified in a timely mode and disciplinary action can be taken ” .
Since the jobs need to be address quickly, Cheung et Al. ( 2004 ) suggested that the undertaking director should number on web based monitoring system that can supply timely indicant of undertaking jobs, whether they are existent or possible.
Shen et Al. ( 2010 ) stated that although systems integrating and coaction are non new research subject, but it was believed to be the key for enabling engineerings that drives the building industry in bettering productiveness and efficiency.
Chung et Al. ( 2009 ) besides stated that recent literatures are more focal point on computer-aided design coaction and communicating while really small attending was directed to turn to the possible usage of coaction engineering in undertaking stakeholder communicating.
Project Team Members ‘ Collaboration and Communication
Harmonizing to Patterson ( 2001 ) , project coaction is conducted between assorted types of squad members to accomplish specific undertaking end. Dow and Taylor ( 2008 ) besides mentioned that “ coaction involves two or more people in carry out any undertakings or procedures and it involves work done among equals irrespective of their functions ” . Generally, executives will hold an involvement in multiple undertakings, undertaking director would usually be concentrating on a peculiar undertaking and single squad members may be working on one or more undertakings at the same clip ( Patterson, 2001 ) .
Figure 3: Undertaking coaction is conducted between assorted types of squad members ( Patterson, 2001 ) .
There are some relationship between undertaking squad members ‘ coaction and communicating. Chen et Al. ( 2007 ) mentioned that due to improper direction and control, communications in undertaking squads frequently contribute to legion undertaking failures.
Figure 4: Cross Functional Teams and communicating in Construction ( Chen et al. , 2007 )
As explained by Patterson ( 2001 ) , a undertaking coaction tool is chiefly used for “ updating undertaking position, bespeaking and reexamining single advancement entries, and tracking and pull offing alterations, issues, and action points ” . It is besides become portion of sharing project information among the undertaking squad members.
However, pass oning with squad members in a structured manner helps a undertaking director optimise squad public presentation and better coaction. Individual squad members depend to a great extent on the information in a timely mode for any action that need to be taken. Harmonizing to Patterson ( 2001 ) , the squad members need to be on a regular basis informed of of import factors such as undertaking range and mileposts every bit good as undertaking events in order to accomplish its undertaking aims.
Effective communicating activities for undertaking squad members.
Effective communicating within undertaking squad members in a structured manner will assist to optimize undertaking squad public presentation and better coaction. Harmonizing to Dow and Taylor ( 2008 ) , project communicating should consist of three elements which are:
Communicating undertaking information in a timely mode
Generating the right degree of information for the client
Collecting, administering and hive awaying undertaking information.
Tania ( 2006 ) explained that effectual communicating among team members ensures that each squad member will:
understands their duties,
get coordinated in order to work together expeditiously
informed about the position of the undertaking
aware of of import determinations that may impact undertaking completion
Dow and Taylor ( 2008 ) highlighted that effectual undertaking communicating should merely supply of import information to the squad members with the right format, at the right clip, and the right impact.
Krishna ( 2006 ) insisted that there must be a communicating program in every undertaking so that every stakeholder will be informed of any advancement of the undertaking. Harmonizing to Westland ( 2007 ) , “ the communications program identifies the types of information to be distributed to stakeholders, the methods of administering the information, the frequence of distribution, and duties of each individual in the undertaking squad for administering the information ” . Kotze et Al. ( 2005 ) emphasized that the communicating program in project execution should consists of:
The lines of communicating transmitter and receiving system duty and authorization
The range and format of communicating
The methods for illustration: electronic mail, papers, telephone, meeting, presentation
Communication frequence or agenda
To corroborate message received, accepted and understood
To recover, shop, archive and catastrophe recovery
Andres ( 2008 ) stated that coaction tools can be related to three major types of communicating challenges which are “ information direction, conferencing, and undertaking direction ” . In undertaking direction, harmonizing to PMBOK ( 2004 ) , “ undertaking monitoring should be performed so that possible jobs can be identified in a timely mode and disciplinary action can be taken ” .
Harmonizing to Patterson ( 2001 ) , a undertaking coaction tools is chiefly used “ for updating undertaking position, bespeaking and reexamining single advancement entries, and tracking and pull offing alterations, issues, and action points ” . Collaboration tools should besides be based on the communicating program to guarantee that an effectual communicating scheme is built into the undertaking bringing procedure ( Caltrons, 2007 ) . Patterson ( 2001 ) stated that undertaking coaction tools are needed to carry through the undermentioned standards:
Provide easy entree to project information
Offer an easy-to-use interface
Minimise information overload
Provide for seasonably agenda updating
Deal ( 2009 ) stated that presently coaction tools can:
facilitate real-time text, voice, and video communicating ;
aid undertaking direction activities like undertaking direction, calendaring, work flow and clip tracking
Klinc ( 2010 ) claimed that “ most of the coaction tools today enable erstwhile and just-in-case communicating, but deficiency of stronger, systematic and structured support for just-in-time connexions ” .
Harmonizing to Erdogan et Al. ( 2009 ) , there are few stairss in implementing coaction environment procedure which are designation of the demand for a new system, feasibleness analysis, user demands, proficient system design, optimal options and all right tuning.
Communication and Collaboration Models.
Zietsman ( 2009 ) presented on his paper that communicating methods in the building supply concatenation is of import to set up a coaction theoretical account. Figure 5 show an illustration of the communicating in little building supply concatenation.
Figure 5: Example of communicating methods in building supply concatenation ( Zietsman, 2009 )
Survey by Jadid ( 2009 ) indicated that control of the information flow is critical among the undertaking stakeholder throughout the stages of building undertakings as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6: Undertaking direction and communicating ( Jadid, 2009 )
The communicating web-based system theoretical account by Jadid ( 2009 ) has three chief maps which are:
I. Create Tasks
Undertakings created for a group or persons and it include task capable, any notes, relevant start and completion day of the months, the precedence degree, and workflow position.
two. Task direction
It provides a complete control over undertaking such as authorising who can see each undertaking, delegating undertakings to group members, and modifying or taging undertakings as completed.
three. Task to-do lists
The system provides a to-do list undertakings for the user or the squad members.
Guo et Al. ( 2010 ) have developed a theoretical theoretical account for practical prototyping-based communicating and coaction information platform based on Life Cycle Management as shown in Figure 6. However the theoretical account is still in earlier phase and necessitate farther probe.
Figure 7: Model of VP-based communicating and coaction information platform ( Guo et al. , 2010 )
The theoretical account ( Guo et al. , 2010 ) can be divided into two chief faculties which are:
Main theoretical account faculty
It is used to construct the digital mock-up of the undertaking which consists of inactive information from the undertaking life-cycle stages such as planning, design, building etc.
Process simulation faculty
It focuses on the dynamic information of undertakings such as the building procedure and methods or infinite analysis.
Comprehensive survey by Golparvar et Al. ( 2009 ) as shown in Figure 8 explained that there are intergrated theoretical accounts in information environment position that can be used to supervise undertakings.
Figure 8: 4D simulation theoretical account for visual image of building advancement monitoring ( Golparvar et al. , 2009 )
The theoretical account shows the building public presentation through superimposed images of 4-dimensional ( 4D ) simulation theoretical account over time-lapsed exposure. However, survey by Kang et Al. ( 2007 ) found that at present, web-based engineering can non back up the big bringing of 4D building visual image theoretical accounts over the Internet.
Harmonizing to Al-Maadeed et Al. ( 2010 ) , clip tracking system will supply an machine-controlled and centralised ways of tracking and supervising advancement for the undertakings. Effective web based undertaking supervising system must hold a structured issue tracking system. Survey by Janak ( 2009 ) showed that issue tracking system truly needs a proper petition work flow and can bring forth study in existent clip. Figure 9 show one of the illustration in developing work flow ( fining system ) petition for issue tracking system.
Figure 9: Example in developing work flow ( fining system ) petition for issue tracking system ( Janak, 2009 )
Summary of Chapter.
The research methodological analysis is the constitution of the model in order to transport out this survey. To accomplish the aims of this survey, research methodological analysis will be conducted into three stages as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 Schematic of research methodological analysis
Based on the subject and job statement designation, the survey will concentrate on purpose and aims. Mentions to literature reappraisal were made to obtain the latest cognition or construct of any research conducted particularly related to aims of this subject.
During this stage, interviews and studies will be conducted in order to:
survey and clear up the demand of undertaking squad members ‘ coaction and effectual communicating
place the factors which affect the defect in SKALA system for undertaking coaction tools
received the feedback from the undertaking squad members for SKALA sweetening with respects to coaction tools
The method of informations aggregation for point ( I ) will be based on interviews with related experts from PWD ‘s certified undertaking directors and the keeper of PWD Quality Management System. Based on the elucidation of the demands, studies will be conducted for point ( two ) and ( three ) . The surveys respondent will consist samples of PWD undertaking squads members ( Head of Project Team, Head of Design Team, Procurement Offices and Project Site Teams ) in PWD headquarter, States and Districts.
During this concluding stage, analysis will be conducted based on informations aggregation and a proposed theoretical account will be established. The proposal theoretical account will be verified by PWD ‘s certified undertaking directors, the keeper of PWD Quality Management System and Head of PWD ICT Branch. The expected findings based on this survey will:
set up the patterns and characteristics of undertaking squad coaction and communicating
bring forth standard method for effectual communicating activities among PWD undertaking squad members ‘ coaction in SKALA
suggest a theoretical account of optimised coaction tool for SKALA system that will help PWD to pull off and supervise all its undertakings in a timely mode