Chapter III

India is confronting a serious job of natural resource scarceness, particularly that of H2O in position of population growing and economic development [ 1 ] . The one-year norm rainfall in the Indian terrain is a healthy 1869 cu/Km [ 2 ] which is much more the universe norm. The rainfall in India shows a really high spatial and temporal variableness [ 3 ] . That so is the ground for H2O resource direction going a complex matter in India, for, the rainfall that is received during this short period has to be distributed for a assortment of activities.

Traditionally India has been agriculture based economic system and hence is the importance of development of irrigation strategies so as to cut down the dependance on land H2O by effectual use of the river Waterss. The one-year possible groundwater recharge from rainfall in India is about 342.43 Km3, which is 8.56 % of the entire one-year rainfall of the state [ 4 ] . While rain is a critical beginning of H2O for about the whole of the Indian peninsula, the snowmelt from the glaciers of the Himalayan belt is a important subscriber to the H2O beginning to the vale parts and the foothill part of the Himalayas. While an exact value of H2O resources of the state is a hard ask, estimations of the H2O resources has been done in a comprehensive mode by the Ministry of Water Resources. An analysis of the resources gives a really rose-colored image, nevertheless the complexnesss involved in tackling the resources in an optimal mode is what is doing incubuss to the ministry. There is a demand to guarantee a delicate balance between the influxs to the H2O resources of a part and the outflow constituents.

The National Water Policy [ 5 ] stipulates that the entire measure of state ‘s land H2O pumped out must be limited to one-year recharge. Scientist utilizing NASA ‘s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment ( GRACE ) orbiters have determined that land H2O in North Western part of India is diminishing at a dismaying rate [ 6 ] . If the land H2O tabular array goes down the authorities will be forced to believe of options which is more efficient usage of river Waterss. The facts province that though H2O resource handiness is equal till twelvemonth 2020 but because of the current rate of growing of the population the handiness will go critical after 2020. Besides the fact that India will be forced to look at other beginnings of river H2O than those granted by the IWT.


The drouth prone country assessed in the state is of the order of 68 % of the entire land mass [ 7 ] which is approximately tantamount to 51.12 Mha [ 8 ] . Many interior parts of peninsular India, such as the Deccan tableland, Southern and Central India semen under the clasps of dry enchantments even in the monsoon season itself due to scanty rainfall. Drought is non the consequence of a individual cause, but a cumulative consequence of many causes. Not merely the handiness of H2O for irrigation of agricultural lands is acutely hit, but besides the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours human life is subjected to trouble due to shortage of H2O for personal usage.

History has chronicled several drouths in India, and no portion of India has escaped dry enchantments due to failure of monsoons and the attendant drouth. A distressing fact as an outgrowth of drought conditions is that even offense rates such as robbery and plundering steeply addition, as a subsequence to the migration of people affected by drouth looking for a nice life, but taking to unsocial activities in the absence of occupation chances. Besides it is during these times that sharing of river H2O by riparian provinces is a cause for concern. What is self-contradictory is that provinces which have a long coastline or lesser H2O resources at their countries have non taken any stairss to come out of this job by manner of concentrating on desalinization, drip irrigation, rain reaping altering harvest form necessitating less H2O etc.

Drought prone countries in India

The entire country affected by unequal rainfall is a small over one million square kilometers. The countries which are drought prone are Thar Desert terrain, Kalahandi- Koraput belt, countries such as North Arcot, ( Tamil Nadu ) Anantpur and Chittoor ( Andhra Pradesh ) Bellary and Bijapur ( Karnataka ) Osmanabad and Aurangabad ( Maharastra ) . [ 9 ] Most of the countries in this rain shadow zone is dumbly populated with difficult working, knowing and enterprising people. There are several towns holding more than 100,000 population, besides countless small towns situated in this zone. Sparse flora, Pediment type of barrens and deep degrees of land H2O tabular array make life hard in these topographic points. Barrens dominate over arable Fieldss and in the arable lands excessively merely one harvest is grown in an twelvemonth. Proper H2O direction in this terrain is capable of transforming the arid to semi waterless conditions to a extremely productive countries This country is ideal for drip/ sprinkler irrigation to repossess the drouth affected countries. Examples exist as is done at Israel.

A few more pockets of chronic drouth prone countries are- Ramanathpuram and Thirunelveli territories of Tamil Nadu, the additive corridor between Coimbatore and Pallakad and the Saurashtra and Kachchh parts of Gujrat. Besides studies of cultivable lands situated somewhat further off from the inundation fields and the Deltaic parts of Ganges, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers coming under the clasp of H2O scarceness for agricultural activities. Locations like Kodaikanal, Udhagamandalam and Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu, [ 10 ] and Dehradun and Mussorie in Uttaranchal are illustrations of inordinate human intervention taking to unsustainable urban development and decadent instability in handiness of H2O resources in countries otherwise known for voluminous rainfall.

A coevals ago husbandmans in Gujrat used bullocks to raise H2O from shallow Wellss in leather pails. Now husbandmans draw H2O from 300 meters below land utilizing electrical pumps. Harmonizing to province H2O functionaries, H2O tabular arraies are dropping by 6 meters every twelvemonth. India had a pump revolution in the last four decennaries and husbandmans have drilled about 21 million tubing Wellss into the saturated strata beneath their Fieldss. Every twelvemonth husbandmans bring another million Wellss into service largely outside the control of province irrigation governments. [ 11 ] These pumps powered by subsidized electricity work twenty-four hours and dark to water Fieldss of more H2O devouring harvests like rice, sugar cane and lucerne.

The job is serious and terrible and maintaining in position that agribusiness is the anchor of our economic system, replenishment methods like puting legion dikes across river beds, H2O harvest home and H2O shed strategies to reload our belowground resources besides inundation direction demand to be given the right drift. In harvest production there is a demand to promote modern methods of irrigation.

In malice of an copiousness of H2O resources it has non been easy for the province to tap these resources. Discussion of internal H2O differences is far beyond the range of the thesis and is hence non being mentioned ; nevertheless one dissension due to the distribution of H2O of the Indus river system is deserving holding a expression. Disagreement over the sharing of river Waterss from the Indus river system has been one of the major causes of the violent sezession motion in the Punjab state of India in the 1980s and 1990s. This Sikh dominated state has been traditionally provided with a H2O supply from the Beas, Sutlej and Ravi Rivers. The demands of the downstream states of Rajasthan and Haryana persuaded the Indian authorities to build canals and deviate 60 per cent of Punjab ‘s H2O and energy to Hindu bulk parts [ 12 ] . This became a major point of confrontation due to which insurgence was encouraged.

Water Demand and Resource Management

If the entire H2O handiness in India is analysed that the logical decision would be that that there is equal H2O for all. However H2O handiness on the Indian subcontinent is strongly influenced by a figure of climatic and geographic factors. Together these combine to supply India with adequate fresh water to run into the assorted demands originating from the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors. However, the existent distribution of H2O resources over infinite and clip bounds entree to certain geographic parts and during a few months of the twelvemonth. Government policies and economic inducements have besides influenced the H2O distribution and ingestion across India [ 13 ]

  1. “ Alarming Scarcity of Water in India ” , NK Garg and Q Hassan, Current Science Vol 93 No 7 10 Oct 2007.
  2. National Water Resource at a Glance accessed on 18 Nov 2009
  3. Rakesh Kumar, R D Singh & A ; K D Sharma Water Resources of India
  4. Ibid p4.
  5. Indian Ministry of Water Resources, National Water Policy. Retrieved 09 Nov 2009 from
  6. GRACE reveals land H2O depletion in India. Retrieved on 11 Dec 2009 from
  7. Drought in India, Challenges and Initiatives, p5, PACS Programme 2001-08
  8. “ Water Resources of India ” , Rakesh Kumar, RD Singh and KD Singh, Current Science, Vol 89, No 5, Sep 2005, pp794.
  9. H Sarvotham, Water Resources Augmentation, Management & A ; Policies p45.
  10. Peter P Molinga, On The Waterfront, p61.
  11. Harendar Raj Goutam Water Crisis and Rain Water Harvesting Kurukshetra Quaterly p4.
  12. “ Pull offing Water Conflicts ” by Ashok Swain, pp 21
  13. “ Water denationalization and Deductions in India ” , Anitha Sampath, Association for India ‘s Development.