Wireless Overview

The term of radio is its do n’t necessitate wires to do the communicating and the different to wired connexion is its demand wires to do the communicating and if anyone said it sound so feeble so be it because it is the true. Radio does non trip or do noise or needed batch of messy wired devices because it merely uses the wireless signal to convey and have the signal without wires.

Wireless History

Let ‘s get down with a small history of radio before leap to the class of wireless communicating that available today. Now we know that radio is radio signals that do n non hold wires to direct the information to the receiving system and it all begins in 1896 when Guglielmo Marconi develops the first radio telegraph system. So the telegraph is the first devices that use wireless communicating to direct that through wireless signal and this engineering maintain germinating with the clip when the first commercial radiotelephony service operated between Britain and the US in 1927. Adequate with the history of radio because as we all know the wireless engineerings now became portion of our unrecorded and it all over the universe except topographic points without coverage yet.

Wireless Category

They are different method and criterion for radio communicating based on how it works such as Bluetooth, WIFI, WiMAX and 3G. They all in wireless classs that use a wireless signal that is higher than human hearing frequence ( 20 Hz to 20k Hz ) which is can non be detected by homo, if human can hears all the moving ridges higher than 20k Hz we as human might hold collusion with the wireless waves that be conveying all across the Earth. A radio web uses wireless moving ridges merely like a cell phone, Television or wireless and it more a batch like a 2-way wireless communicating.

Below the illustration:

  1. Data Computer Antenna Radio Waves
  2. The information in the computing machine translate into a radio signal and transmitted utilizing aerial.

  3. Data Computer Antenna Radio Waves
  4. The wireless moving ridge be gaining control utilizing the aerial and be interpreting by the computing machine for the informations.

This engineering can be classified into four single classs based on their specific map, application and transmittal scope for better apprehension. The classs are like the figure below and the account for the figure will merely cover PAN, LAN and MAN:

Organization and Standards

Wireless web used a wireless frequence to link to each other and to do certain it is unflawed without any job, criterions are needed to categories the engineerings and organisations will be involve to do certain this engineerings win. As for organisation their occupations is to supervise, research and set protocol for this radio web. Below are the list of organisation and the criterions.


Start with the first organisation that involve with the radio web name International Telecommunication Union ( ITU ) that based in Geneva Switzerland. This is an international organisation that coordinates criterions and ordinances. Every state in the Earth used a specific frequence or set in order to administer the wireless frequence and this is the portion where ITU designated the frequence based on international Table of the Frequency Allocations. The webs and services include airing through wireless, telephone, telecasting and orbiter. Below the tabular array of ordinances and criterions that screen by ITU:


IEEE is short name for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and it is a non net income organisation that has more than 370000 members around the Earth. It besides has 319 subdivisions in 10 geographic countries with 900 criterion defined and 400 still in development. IEEE occupations are to develop and keep the criterions for the local ( LAN ) and metropolitan ( MAN ) web within the 802 standard household. The full criterion based on 802 will be managed by the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standard Committee ( LMSC ) that has multiple working groups. Most common 802 standard households are the 802.3 ( Ethernet ) , 802.5 ( Token Ring ) and 802.11 ( WLAN ) .

WIFI Alliance

WIFI Alliance is a world-wide non net income association that has more than 300 members companies in order to giving and advancing the growing of wireless local country web ( WLAN ) . As the derived function from specified criterions for radio frequence of transition devices by IEEE, the readings of the 802.11 criterions by different sellers can do interoperability jobs between their devices and WIFI confederation occupations is to work out this job.

With the purpose of heightening the user experience for radio portable, Mobile and place amusement devices, the Wi-Fi Alliance ‘s testing and enfranchisement plans help guarantee the interoperability of WLAN merchandises based on the IEEE 802.11 specification. Below are the WIFI Alliance timeline saying from 1999 boulder clay 2004:

Before the account of infrared and Bluetooth let stay that this 2 engineering is classs in Personal Area Network ( PAN ) . Personal Area Network ( PAN ) uses the connexion ( interpersonal communicating ) for communicating among the computing machine device ( equal to peer or device to device ) for the personal devices such as nomadic phone, PDA or MP3 participant. It called personal country web because it is normally been use as a web transportation between those personal devices such as mp3, electronic mail, calendar, digital exposure and picture.

It is the same for the WPAN which is the wireless version that lone covers a short scope ( a unit of ammunition +- 10 metres ) and ever been used in today nomadic devices engineerings of infrared and Bluetooth. The ground why the WPAN merely cover in short scope distance is because of the privateness of the devices itself, the ( +- 10 metres ) is to restrict the scope of the communicating utilizing this WPAN engineering such as infrared and Bluetooth for the security intent.

The illustration for this ground is when a individual in an airdrome utilizing a Smartphone to replace the passport enter the gate by observing the designation while reading the information that been transmit by the Smartphone itself. If the coverage of this WPAN is excessively large person might disrupt or commandeering the information in a long distance without anyone notice, so that why the engineering that came under WPAN for personal merely screen in short scope coverage.

Infrared ( IrDA )

Infrared is a radio engineerings that allows calculating devices to connected to each other in short scope wireless signal ( +- 5 metres ) and it is design to merely allows two connexion with each other merely but this engineering got an extension devices for this job and it is available in the market to back up a connexion for more than two computing machine devices and semi-permanent web.

The infrared utilizing light-based transmittal engineering and is non dispersed spectrum engineerings like others that use Radio Frequency to conveying or having the signal. Using infrared transmittal engineering the computing machine devices can reassign files and other digital informations to each other. The typical information rate of infrared devices is about 115 kbps and it is good for interchanging informations between hand-held devices. The infrared engineering can besides be classified into 3 different signifiers that known as Infrared Data Association ( IrDA ) that defines physical specifications communicating protocol criterion for this short scope exchange of informations over infrared visible radiation which are:

  • IrDA-SIR -slow velocity: infrared back uping informations rates up to 115 Kbps
  • IrDA-MIR-medium velocity: infrared back uping informations rates up to 1.15 Mbps
  • IrDA-FIR-fast velocity: infrared back uping informations rates up to 4 Mbps

The disadvantage of infrared is it need line of sight ( LOS ) to acquire a clear connexion between the devices and the IrDA communicating is subjective to light interventions but in term of advantage the velocity of transportation it is faster than Bluetooth and it did non interventions with radio frequence such as microwave.


Bluetooth get it name by borrowing from Harald Bluetooth name that is a male monarch of Denmark that live in this universe more than 1000 old ages ago and Bluetooth engineering besides known as IEEE 802.15.1. Bluetooth are non designed for high throughput because most of the devices need to utilize it as a personal devices and it need for simple usage, low power, and short scope ( security ground ) . Bluetooth engineering possibly the replacing for the infrared solution but it besides for short scope of coverage like infrared around +- 10 metres even thought it utilize 2.45Ghz ( 2.402 GHz – 2.480 GHz ) frequence such as 802.11b and 802.11g that can cover till 100 metres. The hop rate of Bluetooth devices is about 1600 hops per second and the high hop rate besides gives the engineering greater opposition to specious narrow set noise. It use a low power wireless communicating to do the communicating to the others computing machine devices instead than utilizing a visible radiation like infrared. The velocities of transportation of Bluetooth ( +- 1Mbps ) possibly slower than infrared ( up to +- 4Mbps ) in IrDA-FIR constellation but by utilizing the low power wireless signal it can utilize less resources than infrared. In networking characteristics Bluetooth besides beat infrared in term of support to pass on upper limit to 8 Bluetooth devices into individual Bluetooth device by utilizing a dynamic topology protocol called a piconet. This protocol is been upgraded quickly get downing of Bluetooth version 1.1, 1.2, and 2.0.

The web can back up till 8 devices. 1 device will move as maestro to find the hooping form to be assigned to the piconet to be a slave. Each piconet has its alone frequence skiping sequence and by enable the Bluetooth devices a connexion is initiated. Now the maestro assigns the connexion to the slave devices in a package and uses the reference of the maestro to synchronise with other piconet by computation the sequence of frequence hops within the piconet. Now it done by have all the devices in different peculiar frequence assign by the maestro native clock in order to convey or have the signal and by making this the devices will non disrupt with each other by relentless altering the frequence channels.

Wireless local area network

debut of Wireless LANS

Today radio LANS is all over our environment and it can be find about everywhere start from our lodging country, school, college, working topographic points or even authorities environment. 802.11 specify an over-the-air interface between a wireless client and a basal station or between two wireless clients, now the user can bask the mobility to travel about within the coverage of WLAN and still be connected to the web. IEEE accepted this specification in 1997. Below are the tabular array of most common used WLAN engineering and protocol.

WLAN besides known as WIFI and the name come from IEEE as a set of criterions for a scope of engineerings protocol and uses to sort the criterions. WIFI has tonss of advantages compare to LAN like easy to setup without tonss of wiring procedures, large coverage and cheap to back up tonss of client but it suffer from this disadvantage to LAN like deficiency of security and slower in velocity. Below are the accounts:

The Professionals

The statement for easy apparatus without tonss of wiring can be consider as a web apparatus for difficult topographic points in wiring like higher topographic points or long distance topographic points because of it coverage ( coverage point ) and as for cheap the consideration can be add in the cost of less wiring cost per devices and users support.

The Cons

WLAN really have it ain security method like WEP and WAP but because it broadcast the signal in large graduated table it may increase the hazard of person stealing the connexion or even commandeer the signal. The illustration of deficiency of security is when a wireless entree point broadcast a signal in a house but the signal now is larger than the house person from the exterior may observe the signal and utilize it without permission ( if do n’t hold security watchword ) . As for the slower velocity comparison to LAN is because WLAN operated in half-duplex manner while LAN in full-duplex manner and it act more like a hub when everyone can hears everyone, this means that the bandwidth is shared to all into a individual entree point. Example is when tonss of client enter in a individual entree point the entree point will acquire slower to shared the bandwidth.


Man or metropolitan country web is webs that cover a large scope of communicating like a metropolis, town to town or even communicating in topographic points that hard to air to wish a desert. This type of web is available in wireless connexion or Broadband Wireless Access Standards and this engineering known as WiMAX or IEEE 802.16. The standard broadcast the signal in a long scope that defines a broadband entree from fixed or nomadic devices via aerial. Below general position of WMAN airing their signal utilizing WiMAX:

The History and Introduction of WiMAX

WiMAX ( Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ) is a new engineering to consumers in Malaysia because this engineering merely had been launched of this engineering around center of 2009, nowadays it became the most demanding broadband services in Malaysia to replace fixed cyberspace line that require wires like Streamxy from TMnet.

WiMAX release in April 2001 and it ‘s already been tested and launch in United State and United Kingdom in 2004 -2005 as 802.16 for industrial and enterprise intent. For the information WiMAX is really similar to WIFI with better upgrade capablenesss like bigger coverage scope, faster transportations speed and support for greater figure of users.

WiMAX specifications

WiMAX can air it signal in a big scale country. The signal can be broadcast up to 50km for the fixed station and 5-15 for nomadic Stationss. If this signal be compare to WIFI ( under WLAN ) it seems these two engineerings are really similar except for the transportation velocity and scope of coverage.

Let ‘s get down the accounts start with the velocity of WiMAX that can be up to 40Mbps capacity per radio channel for both the fixed. As for the Range WiMAX scope of coverage already be told before ( 50KM – fixed station, 5-15 Mobile ) but because this engineerings based on microwave frequence the line of side is really of import to keep the scope, velocity and optimal capablenesss of this WiMAX.

Last for this WiMAX specification this engineering can be deployed in many type of spectrum frequence such as 2.3 GHZ, 2.5GHz, 3.5GHZ and 5.8GHz, below are the ASN ( entree Service Network ) for WiMAX:

WiMAX Advantages and Disadvantages

To simplify the ground about WiMAX below are the tabular array with the advantages and disadvantage of WiMAX that complete with the ground and accounts.

Overview of IEEE 802.11

802.11 is an international criterion to categories the feature of wireless local country web and known as WIFI ( wireless Fidelity ) .All of 802.11 IEEE criterions focal point on the lower 2 portion in ISO theoretical account with is the physical bed and nexus bed ( based on figure below ) . Below is the OSI theoretical account for 802.11:

As for any LAN application, web runing system, protocol ( including TCP/IP and Novell Netware ) will run on an 802.11 ailment WLAN every bit simple as they run on Ethernet ( LAN ) . Basically there are tonss of types of WLAN but we will merely discourse the most common WLAN types that are 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11x. Below are accounts for types of 802.11.

The original 802.11 criterion ( 1997 ) offered WLAN on a frequence set of 2.4 GHz with informations transfer rates of 1 or 2 Mbps. The original 802.11 systems could utilize frequence skiping dispersed spectrum ( FHSS ) or direct sequence spread spectrum ( DSSS ) wireless transmittal. Optionally, this system could utilize Infrared ( IR ) transmittal alternatively of wireless transmittal. This type of standard already disused because it is excessively slow ( 2mbps ) to back up heavy web comparison to Ethernet that can back up around 100mbps in the same twelvemonth of 1997.

802.11a is a high-velocity information version of the 802.11 wireless local country web ( WLAN ) industry criterions. It was developed in 1999 to run at the 5.7 GHz spectrum and permits informations transmittal speeds up to 54 Mbps comparison to 802.11 that soap merely 2mbps. The 802.11a system provides for 8 non-overlapping 25 MHz broad channels ( channel for 5 GHz frequence ) and up to 64 users per entree point ( AP ) .

Figure above shows the frequence set and wireless channel size that is used in the 802.11a system. This illustration shows that the basic wireless channel in the 802.11a system is 25 MHz broad and that the centre frequence of the wireless channel can be assigned to different points ( channels ) in the three 100 MHz broad 5.7 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical ( ISM ) unlicensed frequence sets.

Nowadays 802.11a is about disused to the universe of WLAN because of mutual exclusiveness, cost, and coverage scope and power ingestion. Let start from the mutual exclusiveness, 802.11a used a higher frequence ( 5.7 GHz ) compare to other types of WLAN like 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n that used 2.4 GHz, because of higher frequence other WLAN types can non back up each other. Second is the cost of doing the devices for 802.11, the cost will be higher because non many people utilizing it and it will be a rare merchandise.

Third is the scope of coverage that is lower than other 2.4 GHz criterions and it is because higher frequence will shorten the length of the frequence but with support higher velocity. Last for 802.11a is the power ingestion, it is because to back up higher frequence or to do this frequence support longer distance a higher power demand to be juice into the device to air the signal as an illustration 2 laptop with 802.11a and 802.11b been compared laptop with 802.11a will run out of battery foremost because the AP from the laptop used more power than the 2nd laptop.

802.11b operates in the 2.4 GHz frequence set and has a informations transportation rate up to 11 Mbps. 802.11b systems are rearward compatible to the original 802.11 system. 802.11b provides for 3 non-overlapping channels and up to 32 users per entree point ( AP ) .

Figure above shows the frequence set and wireless channel size that is used in the 802.11b system. Every WLAN criterion have their ain channel to do certain it will liberate from the collusion and there are 14 channels in 2.4 GHz set ( 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n ) where each set covers for 22 MHz get downing from the frequence of 2.4000 GHz – 2.4835 GHz, for the 802.11a channel it has 64 channels ID. So as can be seen in the figures above, there are 14 cringles that overlaps each other ‘s until the loops terminal in a scope of 22 GHz. Let state the best manner to avoid the intervention with each other the recommended set is 1, 6 and 11 where already be line in ruddy coloring material in the figure above. The ground is merely this 3 set do non interference with each other in a full graduated table of 22 MHz and in illustration when 6 routers of 802.11g privation to air the signal it can revolve the 1, 6 and 11 to non fall ining into each other ‘s. It is non necessary to follow this because for a individual broadcast the apparatus can be 1s of these 14 sets. Below are the a few tips to maximising the WLAN public presentation to avoid the intervention

  • Properly set the entree point channel
  • Properly set the entree point scope and
  • Properly avoid the interventions

As for the channel in the 802.11b the account for the hit turning away already been explain in the channel for WLAN chapter and the most suited channel to utilize in this 802.11b is channel 1, 6 and 11 because each frequence non interference each other ‘s although other channel such as 3 or 7 can be used, It is because of Co-channel and Adjacent channel interface that will be explain below:

Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel

Above is the illustration of 4 AP from 2 floors in a edifice. The AP will be excessively close to each other because its demand to cover the full floor with the signal but collusion might go on because of the frequence overlapping and the first job occur name co-channel ( see image at 1st floor ) . If this type of intervention occurs the signal will be the same to the receiving system and it besides cause interferes to one another. Second job in channel illation is next intervention that occurs in the land floor of the illustration where the center of the coverage wills intervention to each other. The consequence is about similar to co-channel intervention with the intervention of the signal frequence but the user will observe a difference channel.

Dynamic Rate Shifting ( DRS )

To do certain the user still connected to the web even in different velocity of transmittal a method name dynamic rate switching been used. DRS been used to switch the rate automatically based on the scope of the connexion from 11Mbps to 1Mbps without dropping the connexion. DRS based on 802.11b will treat the shifting at different informations rate by utilizing different transition like:

In the figure above it show that more far the scope of the coverage the lesser the information rate it acquire and to do certain the user got the perfect informations rate they must travel nearer the entree point. The switching procedure will automatically alter the information rate based on different transition in each of the information rate shifting.

802.11g are a Wireless LAN standard that operates in the 2.4 GHz sets that provides up to 54 Mbps of informations transmittal velocity. 802.11g are rearward compatible to 802.11b, 802.11g is utilizing DSSS and adapts OFDM transition to the frequence of 2.4 GHz which is besides the same transition that 802.11a utilizations. 802.11g provides for 3 non-overlapping channels.

Wireless LAN type can demo the different merchandise groups of 802.11 systems and how the information transmittal rates have increased in the 802.11 WLAN over clip as new more advanced transition engineerings are used. The first systems could merely convey at 1 Mbps. The current development of 802.11a and 802.11a allows for informations transmittal rates of up to 54 Mbps.

The 802.11n already had been proposed in 2004 and announced in the 2007 as a new criterion for WLAN for better capablenesss than 802.11b and 802.11g but non yet release until October 2009 but still non yet ratified. Now it been the latest engineering in 802.11 households been release after 802.11g in Jun 2003. The 802.11n protocol can back up reassign velocity of 300Mbps comparison to 54Mbps for 802.11g but the throughput possibly merely 100Mbps based on the client issues. It is besides support rearward compatible like 802.11g but it cover for all 802.11a/b/g and the backward compatibility comes from its usage of multiple aerials and a engineering called Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output ( MIMO ) . MIMO is using multiple radio signals and aerials and it virtualized the full-duplex operations. There are 3 types of MIMO which is pre-coding, spacial multiplexing and diverseness cryptography. As the new engineerings in 802.11 households it got several advantages than older standard likes:

  • Better throughput – Faster transportations rate
  • Reliability – Low latency and hold sensitive application
  • Backward compatible – support older criterion like 802.11a, B and g

And a few disadvantages like:

  • Too New – excessively new to client and the maximal capablenesss can non to the full utilize
  • Costly – new engineering and the user will pay excess for the R & A ; D

The 802.11x is a criterion that group other criterions WLAN or LAN that still under development or non yet O.K. or deployed. The 802.11 besides a criterion for a security solution which can place a user who wants to entree a web by apparatus am hallmark waiter and it even include the VLAN ( tunnel ) . The 802.1x is based on the Extensile Authentication Protocol. This protocol used for transporting user designation information. The 802.1x is designed for medium and big radio LANs that contain infrastructure consisting of Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service ( RADIUS ) waiters and account databases like the ADS ( active directory service ) and apart from that 802.1x its prevents a wireless node from fall ining a radio web until the node has performed a successful hallmark.


Before get downing the accounts about CSMA/CA for radio an debut for CSMA/CD is required to compare this Medium Access Mechanism. Let ‘s travel for the Ethernet Technologies that utilizing CSMA/CD as the medium entree mechanism for 802.3 based Ethernet webs. As for 802.11 that based on WLAN it besides use a similar mechanism known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance ( CSMA/CA ) , CSMA/CA is a listen before talk ( LBT ) mechanism.

The conveying station senses the medium for a bearer signal and delaies until the bearer channel is available before conveying. Wired Ethernet is able to feel a hit on the medium. Two Stationss conveying at the same clip increase the signal degree on the wire, bespeaking to the transmission Stationss that a hit has occurred. 802.11 radio Stationss do non hold this capableness. The 802.11 entree mechanism must do every attempt to avoid hits all together.

For better apprehension in comparing the CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA a telephone conference call is a nice illustration. Let get down with each participant desiring to talk demands to wait for everyone else to halt speech production. Once the line is quiet, the participant can try to talk. If two participants begin talking at the same clip, they must halt and seek once more and CSMA/CA is more ordered than CSMA/CD.

CSMA/CA has more rigorous regulations than CSMA/CD. These regulations help forestall hits and this bar is a key for radio webs because there is no expressed hit sensing mechanism. CSMA/CA implicitly detects a hit when a sender does non have an expected recognition. The 802.11 execution of CSMA/CA is manifested in the distributed coordination map ( DCF ) .

Carrier Sense

A station that wants to convey on the wireless medium must feel whether the medium is in usage or non. If the medium is in usage, the station must wait frame transmittal until the medium is non in usage. The station determines the province of the medium utilizing two methods:

  • Check the Layer 1 physical bed to see whether a bearer is present
  • Use the practical carrier-sense map ( web allotment vector )

The station can look into the Layer 1 physical bed and detect that the medium is available. But in some cases, the medium might still be reserved by another station via the web allotment vector. The web allotment vector is a timer that is updated by informations frames transmitted on the medium.

Above are illustration of web allotment vector update procedure in an substructure Basic Services Set where A support to direct a frame to C. Because the radio medium is a broadcast-based shared medium, B besides receives the frame. The 802.11 frames contain a continuance field. This continuance value is big plenty to cover the transmittal of the frame and the expected recognition. B updates its web allotment vector with the continuance value and does non try transmittal until the web allotment vector has decremented to 0. Note that stations merely update the web allotment vector when the continuance field value received is greater than what is presently stored in their web allotment vector. Using the same illustration, if B has a web allotment vector of 10 msecs, it does non update its web allotment vector if it receives a frame with continuance of 5 msecs. B updates the web allotment vector if it receives a frame with continuance of 20 msecs.

Medium Access Control ( MAC )

Medium ( wireless ) entree control involves feeling activity, timing, exponential backoff, and retry bounds. Before WLAN devices can convey, they must listen to radioactivity around them to find if they are allowed to convey. Some of the radiation includes control messages that define clip periods ( interframe infinites ) where devices are non allowed to convey because other devices are conveying or will be transmit during those periods.

If a device listens and hears no radiation or reserved interframe periods, it can try to convey. If the device does non hear a response to its initial transmittal, it will detain its following transmittal an sum of clip each clip it attempts to convey ( exponentially ) . Devicess besides have bounds on the maximal figure of times it can try to entree ( limited figure of retrys ) other devices. This MAC procedure removes the possibility of all devices trying to entree and reattempting to entree other devices at the same clip.

The methods for commanding entree to WLAN systems may be random ( “ contention based ” ) or assigned ( “ non-contention based ” ) . The operation of a WLAN system can centralise, distributed or a combination of the two. When the operation of the web is random, it is called distributed coordinated map ( DCF ) . When the operation of the web is coordinated, it is called the point coordination map ( PCF ) .

Distributed Access Control ( DCF )

DCF allows the independent operation ( distributed entree control ) of radio informations devices ( Stationss ) . In DCF contention-based system, communicating devices indiscriminately request service from channels within a communicating system. Because communicating petitions occur indiscriminately, two or more communicating devices may bespeak service at the same time. The entree control part of a DCF session normally involves necessitating the communicating device to feel for activity before conveying and listen for message hits after its service petition. If the requesting device does non hear a response to its petition, it will wait a random sum of clip before reiterating the entree effort. The sum of random clip waited between retransmission petitions increases each clip a hit occurs. DCF manner is a peer-to-peer web where the temporarily radio web that has no waiter or cardinal entree point, hub, or router. Since there is no cardinal base station to supervise traffic or supply Internet entree, the assorted signals can clash with each other.

Figure above shows how a distributed WLAN system allows units to independently bespeak and convey informations. DCF uses ACKs sent by the finish to judge whether a frame was successfully received or non. A upper limit of 8 retries are allowed after which the frame is dropped from the interface waiting line. Using a bearer sense multiple entree ( CSMA ) protocol, WLAN data terminuss listen for activity in the wireless channel before get downing to convey. If there is no channel activity, the WLAN informations terminus can get down to convey. It will so listen to hear a response to its familial signal. If it does non hear a response within a pre-defined clip period, it will halt transmission and get down the channel entree procedure once more ( listen so transmit ) .

Point Control Function ( PCF )

PCF allows the co-ordinated operation ( assigned entree control -Infrastructure Mode ) of radio informations devices ( Stationss ) . In PCF contention free system, communicating devices wait until they receive a polling message before they transmit any information. Because a maestro host coordinates the transmittal of all the devices within its webs, no device will convey at the same clip ( contention loose ) . The entree control part of a PCF session normally involves necessitating the communicating holding to listen to a individual host before conveying any information. To corroborate transmitted information has been successfully received ; the polling message will normally include information about the position of packages that have been received. If the sending device does non have a verification of transmittal in the polling message, it will retransmit the information once more after it receives another polling message.

Figure above shows a radio LAN system that uses a point control map ( PCF ) that requires each of the entree devices to wait until they hear a canvass petition before they can convey. When a station receives a item from a functioning station ( such as an entree point ) , it may react to the canvass petition with the information it has to convey. The usage of the PCF manner ensures that channel hits do non happen. This allows the functioning station a warrant a specific information transportation ( informations flow ) to specific Stationss. This guaranteed informations transmittal rate is of import for existent clip communications ( such as voice or picture ) .

Frames and Format

The WLAN system operates by organizing the entree to the wireless channels and directing packages of informations between wireless entree devices. Packages of informations that are sent within the WLAN system must incorporate adequate references and command information to let them to make their finish. Packages may be sent straight between units ( independent manner ) or they may go through a anchor web ( distributed manner ) .


Addressing in a WLAN system consist of references of devices that are portion of the WLAN system. These are called average entree control ( MAC ) addresses. Each device in the WLAN system including Stationss, entree points, and routers has its ain alone 48 spot average entree control ( MAC ) reference ( besides known as a nexus reference ) . Each information package that is transmitted in the radio LAN contains multiple MAC entrees. These include the beginning reference ( SA ) , finish reference ( DA ) , transmitter reference ( TA ) , and receiving system reference ( RA ) . The beginning reference is the MAC reference of the device that originated the package. The sender reference is the reference of the device that sends the package into the wireless medium. The receiving system reference is the MAC reference of the device that receives the radio package. The finish reference is the MAC reference of the last device in the system to have the package.

Figure above shows the frame construction for an 802.11data package. This diagram shows the package holds up to 4 MAC ( Ethernet ) references and contains a average entree control ( MAC ) heading and a variable length frame organic structure that holds the information. The informations organic structure can change from 0 to 2312 bytes. The information package besides includes a frame cheque amount ( FCS ) to look into the package for transmittal mistakes.

This diagram shows that the MAC heading is divided into a frame control field ( type of frame ) contains up to 4 references ( used for beginning, distribution, and finish package routing ) and it contains a sequence control to place each frame in a sequence of frames. There are three basic types of frames and the accounts are like below:

Management Frames

The intent of direction frames is to set up and keep the communicating and there are 10 of common direction frames. Below are the accounts of the direction frames.

Authentication frame

Is procedure at that place the AP will take to accept or non the individuality of the wireless web interface accountant that want to connected to it. Based on the default scene of unfastened hallmark the web interface accountant will direct merely a individual frame for hallmark and the AP will react with an hallmark frames as a response indicant to alarm about the connexion either it accept or non.

De-authentication frame

The station ( AP ) need to direct the de-authentication frame to the other if it wishes to cut the connexion out and procure the communications.

Association petition frame

The 802.11 association enables the entree point to apportion resources for and synchronise with a wireless web interface accountant. The web interface accountant begins the association procedure by directing an association petition to an entree point. This frame will transport the information about the web interface accountant and the SSID of the web if it wishes to tie in with. After having the association request the entree point will see tie ining with the web interface accountant and if accepted the militias memory infinite and establishes an association ID for the web interface accountant.

Association response frame

The entree point will direct an association response frame incorporating an credence or rejection notice to the wireless web interface accountant bespeaking association. If the entree point accepts the wireless web interface accountant the frame includes information sing the association such as association ID and supported informations rates. If the result of the association is positive, the wireless web interface accountant can use the entree point to pass on with other web interface accountant on the web and systems on the distribution like the Ethernet side of the entree point.

Re- association petition frame

If a wireless web interface accountant roll off from the presently associated entree point and finds another entree point holding a stronger beacon signal, the wireless web interface accountant will direct a reassociation frame to the new entree point. The new entree point so coordinates the forwarding of informations frames that may still be in the buffer of the old entree point waiting for transmittal to the wireless web interface accountant.

Re-association response frame

An entree point sends a reassociation response frame incorporating an credence or rejection notice to the wireless web interface accountant bespeaking reassociation. Similar to the association procedure, the frame includes information sing the association, such as association ID and supported informations rates.

Disassociation frame

A station sends a disassociation frame to another station if it wishes to end the association.

Beacon frame

The entree point sporadically sends a beacon frame to denote its presence and relay information, such as timestamp, SSID, and other parametric quantities sing the entree point to radio web interface accountant that are within scope. Radio web interface accountant continually scan all 802.11 wireless channels and listen to beacons as the footing for taking which entree point is best to tie in with.

Probe petition frame

A station sends a investigation petition frame when it needs to obtain information from another station.

Probe response frame

A station will react with a investigation response frame incorporating capableness information, supported information rates and else merely after it receives a investigation petition frame.

Control Frames

It is possible to unite the benefits of distributed ( DCF ) and controlled ( PCF ) entree into one system ( mention to CSMA portion ) . The combination is in the signifier of insistent clip periods that are allocated for DCF and PCF. By uniting these procedures, it is possible to vouch informations transmittal for existent clip services ( such as voice ) and license random entree for impermanent communicating ( such as direct connexions between laptop computing machines ) . To command the overall flow of packages in the 802.11 system control packages ( control frame subtypes ) packages are used.

These control packages include ( common control frames ) :

  • Request to direct ( RTS )
  • Clear to direct ( CTS ) and
  • Acknowledgement ( ACK ) .

The RTS package is used to inform Stationss that can hear a sender the sum of clip of a package that is coming ( clip continuance ) to assist them avoid package transmittal hits. The CTS package is transmitted from the station that is identified in the RTS package so that other Stationss know a package transmittal will happen. The ACK package is used to corroborate package transmittal has been successfully received.

Data Frames

Data frames are frame that cumulate the information in purpose defines the informations inside the frames. Data frames for 802.11 include the frame control field, address Fieldss, frame organic structure, and frame cheque sequence field and by so the user can observer the contents of the frame organic structure to see what in the package when the frames were transported.

Authentication and Association


Authentication is proof or certificated for connexions to link with a station by transmit a petition to the station and the station will give a feedback either the petition is allowed or non. Below are the illustrations of type of hallmark procedure:

Open System Authentication: Open system hallmark authenticates anyone who requests hallmark. It provides a nothing or free hallmark procedure. After the entrance web been allowed the information frames would be encrypted if merely the WEP was required in the radio LAN but if the WEP was non being used, the informations frames would all be sent in the clear as an illustration although there is no initial hallmark the information will still be encrypted.

Shared Cardinal Authentication: Shared cardinal hallmark uses a standard challenge and response along with a shared secret key to supply hallmark. In this, the entree point sends twine of unencrypted informations to client and client encrypts with WEP key and sends back. This manner of hallmark is besides insecure as a user whiffing the traffic would see the unencrypted and encrypted traffic.


The IEEE 802.11 criterion for radio LAN communications introduced the WEP protocol in order to turn to the security jobs discussed supra and attempted to convey the security of the wireless systems closer to that of wired 1s. The chief end of WEP algorithm is to protect wireless communicating from listen ining. Although unauthorised entree to a radio web is non an expressed end in the 802.11 criterion for wireless communicating, it is often considered to be a characteristic of WEP. Unfortunately, the 802.11 provides merely limited support for radio confidentiality through the Wired Equivalent Privacy ( WEP ) protocol. Difficult security issues such as cardinal direction and a robust hallmark mechanism are left as unfastened jobs by the criterions commission.


WEP is non provided strong link-level security nevertheless it may carry through its end and new protocol called WEP2 scaling the length of the key to 128 spots is proposed with compulsory Kerberos support. Although WEP2 increase the IV cardinal infinite to 128 spots, it fails to forestall feats and still permits IV key reuse. Besides, the inclusion of Kerberos support simply opens WEP2 to new dictionary-based onslaughts. The 802.11i criterion will probably include the Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) protocol. AES offers much stronger encoding. Apart from this, the criterion organic structure would probably to suggest an Enhanced Security Network which includes WEP, WEP2 and AES.

WPA and WPA2

The WPA ( WIFI protected entree ) uses a combination of unfastened system and 802.1x hallmark. It is besides a new protocol to get the better of the failing of WEP. The wireless client authenticates with the entree points which authorizes the client to direct frames to the entree point. WPA will execute user-level hallmark with the 802.1x. WPA Interfaces to an hallmark waiter, such as RADIUS in an endeavor environment. Later WPA2 enfranchisement grade indicates conformity with an advanced protocol that implements the full criterion and better than WPA but this advanced protocol will non work with some older web cards.


The 802.1x offers an effectual model for authenticating and commanding user traffic to a protected web, every bit good as dynamically changing encoding keys. 802.1X ties a protocol called EAP ( Extensile Authentication Protocol ) to both the wired and wireless LAN media and supports multiple hallmark methods


Association is really of import to do certain the user devices ( such as PDA, Laptop and Computer ) assigned to each other through the radio web. Association is the procedure of registering with a system to let information to be transmitted and received with a device or system. Association in a WLAN systems it the procedure of registering a radio information device ( station ) with a specific entree point ( AP ) that is portion of a wireless local country web ( WLAN ) system. To let devices to find which wireless coverage country and device they are pass oning with, beacon messages are sporadically transmitted ( broadcasted ) from devices to place their device and/or web name. During the installing procedure for most wireless webs, you need to come in the web name or Service Set Identity ( SSID ) . Different web names are used when puting up your single computing machine, wired web or workgroup. The SSID is a 32-character unique identifier attached to the heading of packages sent over a WLAN can distinguish one WLAN from another. All entree points that are portion of a specific WLAN must utilize the same SSID. A device can non fall in a WLAN unless it can supply the alone SSID assigned to that system. The SSID does non hold to be broadcasted by the system. If you have set the SSID in the entree point and stop user Stationss, they can pass on without supplying the SSID for others to see. Association allows users to travel seamlessly ( rolling ) from one AP coverage country to another with no loss in connectivity. When a WLAN station foremost senses an entree point, it associates with the AP. When a station leaves an AP or wants to reassign to a new AP because the signal quality is better, it disassociates with the AP. This releases resources and allows the system to keep or reroute packages to the new AP that the station associates with following.

Figure above shows how an 802.11 WLAN system can utilize the association procedure to keep connexions between devices as the wander between entree points ( APs ) . In this illustration, a user is pass oning with a WLAN system utilizing a personal digital helper ( PDA ) . When the PDA senses WLAN entree node 1, it sends a petition for association message to the WLAN entree point ( AP ) 1. AP 1 can so update the router as to the handiness of the user in the WLAN web. As the user walks out of scope of AP 1, The PDA sends a disassociation petition to the system. This allows AP 1 to let go of the PDA designation from its memory. When the PDA senses AP 2, it transmits an association petition. This illustration shows that the association of the PDA with AP 2 allows information from a distant computing machine to make the PDA.


Before completing this study lets we name out the ground why radio communicating is better than wired:

  • Mobility-Access the web wherever you want ( if in coverage scope )
  • Reach ability-Able to link the web even in hard topographic points ( if coverage available )
  • Simplicity-Simple to setup without much wiring constellation
  • Maintainability-Easy to keep because less wiring constellation
  • Roaming-The services go wherever you will travel ( if still in coverage )


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